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Course Structure

Introduction

The M. Sc. Microbiology programme was started at TribhuvanUniversity in 1990 for the first time in Nepal at the Central Department of Microbiology, TribhuvanUniversity, Kirtipur. The course structure of the programme was changed in 1999 and revised in 2008 and 2009. However, the course was based on the annual examination system.The course structure of the programme was changed into semester system in 2013.Therefore, this is a revised semester system credit based course curriculum to make it more competitive and research oriented.

 The present curriculum is designed to upgrade M.Sc. Microbiology degree of Institute of Science and Technology, TribhuvanUniversity to international level in accordance to current advances in Microbiology. The new curriculum emphasizes on research based teaching learning practice. The new M.Sc. Microbiology degree programme will be semester system credit based as per international trend. The present curriculum aims to produce qualified microbiologists, molecular biologists, researchers and scientists as per national and international demand. The Master's degree holders will be able to use skills of modern molecular biology techniques in basic science research or in applied research areas of Microbiology. The graduates will be able to work as a qualified scientist for investigating the potential uses of microorganisms to produce antibiotics, antibodies, steroids, vaccines, hormones and other products of microbial origin. The Master's degree holders will be able to work as a microbiologist and research scientist in the laboratories for monitoring, identifying and helping to control infectious diseases.They will also be able to work as qualified researchers and scientists in the institutions related to food production, crop protection and soil fertility. The Master's degree holders will be eligible to be the lecturers of Microbiology programme offered by Institute of Science and Technology and other institutions of Tribhuvan University or other universities for teaching, mentoring and supervising bachelors and masters level Microbiology students.

 Course Structure

 The entire course is divided into four semesters within two academic years. The first semester course covers the disciplines of General Microbiology, Immunology, Microbial Genetics, Microbial Biochemistry and practical on these courses. The second semester offers track selection among four different disciplines of Microbiology for specialization. The four disciplines from second semester include Medical Microbiology, Public Health Microbiology, Food Microbiology and Agricultural Microbiology with their practical courses. The fourth semester is completely research oriented that includes special topics in Microbiology, Epidemiology, Research Methods and Biostatistics, and Dissertation. In the second semester students are required to choose one of the four different disciplines offered and continue with it through the Third and Fourth semesters. Students are not allowed to change the discipline once they have chosen it. The selection of discipline of Microbiology may depend upon the facilities available at the department. To gain exposure, students are encouraged to go for excursion after the second semester.

  Eligibility and Admission Procedures

 Candidates having a Bachelor’s Degree in Microbiology from Tribhuvan University or equivalent degree recognized by Tribhuvan University are eligible to apply for the M. Sc. Microbiology programme. Each applicant should appear and pass entrance examination conducted by the Central Department of Microbiology. The enrollment will be based on merit. The candidates failed to get minimum qualifying marks/pass marks in the entrance examination will not be enrolled in the program.

 Hours of Instruction

 Working days: 90 days in a semester

  1. Class hours:
  • Theory: One credit is equivalent to 15 teaching hours in a semester. One theory paper of 1 credit will have 1 hour of lecture per week
  • Practical: One credit is equal to 60 practical hours in a semester. One practical paper of 1.5 or 1 credit will have 4 hours of practical per week

Total Credits: 70 credits within four semesters.

 Attendance

 Student should be regular in their classes. Students failing to maintain 80 percent presence are not allowed to appear in the semester-end examinations and regarded as “not qualified”. However, in case of serious illness the students with 70 percent attendance will be given chance to appear in the semester-end exam. In this case students have to submit an authorized medical certificate.

 Normal and Maximum Duration of Study

 The normal duration and the maximum duration for the completion of the requirements for the program is as follows:

             Normal duration          24 months (4 academic semesters)

            Maximum duration     60 months (10 academic semesters)

 Students failing to complete the requirements in 60 months have to re-enroll.

 Teaching Methodology

 The general teaching methodology of the program includes interactive lectures, students’ presentations, case studies and projects.

 Language of Instruction: English

 Examination

 Students must pass the internal assessment in order to appear for the final examination. There will be two internal assessments which will count as 40% internal evaluation. The pass marks for theory is 50% and practical subjects are 50%. Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University will conduct semester examination. The final semester examination of 1 credit theory subject will have 1 hour of duration (3C≈3 hrs) and internal assessment will have one hour of duration for all subjects.

 Evaluation/ Examination

The evaluation is based on the internal evaluation and final semester examination. The internal evaluation which is 40% of total evaluation is done by the department based on different criteria of evaluation listed below;

Internal evaluation (40%):

 1. Attendance: 5 marks

2. Seminar/class test/home assignment: 5 marks

3. Project work/ case study: 5 marks

4. Mid term  exam: 10 marks

5. Final term evaluation: 15 marks

The remaining 60% of the evaluation is done from semester examination taken at the end of the semester. The semester examination will be conducted by the office of the Dean of Science and Technology. Students are required to obtain 50 percent to pass internal exam (evaluation) as well as semester end examination.

 Make-up/retake examination

Students failing in not more than two subjects in first, second and third semester shall appear in make-up exams in following cycle of exams. Students failing in two subjects in the fourth semester shall be given opportunity to appear in make-up exam within one month after the final result.

 Grading

 Total marks obtained in internal and semester-end exams shall be graded on absolute bases.

 The performance of a student shall be made on four point scale ranging from 0 to 4 grades. A student must secure a minimum Grade Point Average (GPA) of 2.7 or Grade B minus (B-) in each course.

 Absolute grading scale

 

Grade

CGPA

Percentage Equivalent

Performance Remarks

A

4.0

90 and above

Distinction

A-

3.7

80-89.9

Very good

B+

3.3

70-79.9

First Division

B

3.0

60-69.9

Second Division

B-

2.7

50-59.9

Pass in individual subject

F

0

Below 50

Fail

 The students shall receive their semester grades and academic transcript grades only in letter grades and GPA scores. Students securing only 2.7 in grade point are considered as “pass in individual subject”.

In order to pass the semester examination the student must secure a minimum of Grade ‘B’ or Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 3.0. A student who secures CGPA less than 3 may request for the opportunity to  improve the grade in two subjects. The office of the dean will provide one time opportunity to appear in semester exam. The exam of the courses to improve grade shall be held as per course cycle.

Courses

 Semester I

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 501

General Microbiology (Microbial Systematics, Structure and Physiology)

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 502

Immunology and Immunochemical Techniques

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 503

Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 504

Biochemistry and Instrumentation

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 505

Practical on (MB 501 + MB 502)

P

3

75

MB 506

Practical on (MB 503 + MB 504)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Discipline I: Public Health Microbiology

 Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 552

Applied Environmental Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 553

Fundamentals of Epidemiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 554

Microbial Systematics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 555

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 552)

P

3

75

MB 556

Practical on (MB 553 + MB 554)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 602

Public Health Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 603

Emerging Infectious Diseases

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 604

Public Health Laboratory

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 605

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 602)

P

3

75

MB 606

Practical on (MB 603 + MB 604)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 652

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 653

Hospital/Field Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 654

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 Discipline II: Medical Microbiology

 Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 557

Systematic  and Diagnostic Bacteriology  -1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 558

Systematic  and Diagnostic Virology-1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 559

Systematic  and Diagnostic Parasitology-1

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 560

Systematic  and Diagnostic Mycology -1

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 561

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 557)

P

3

75

MB 562

Practical on (MB 558 + MB 559 + MB 560)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 607

Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 608

Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 609

Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology -2

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 610

Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology  -2

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 611

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 607)

P

3

75

MB 612

Practical on (MB 608 + MB 609  + MB 610)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory course

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 655

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 656

Hospital Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 657

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

Discipline III: Food and Industrial Microbiology

 Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology and Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 564

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 565

General Food Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 566

Foodborne Pathogens and Toxicology 

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 567

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 564)

P

3

75

MB 568

Practical on (MB 565 + MB 566)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 613

Food Fermentation Technology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 614

Food Biotechnology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 615

Food Preservation and Processing

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 616

Total Quality Management and Quality Assurance

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 617

Practical on (MB 613 + MB 614)

P

3

75

MB 618

Practical on (MB 615 + MB 616)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 658

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 659

Industry based Internship

P

8

200

MB 660

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 Discipline IV: Agriculture Microbiology

 Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 569

Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 570

Microbial Metabolism in Soil

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 571

Soil Fertilizers

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 572

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 569)

P

3

75

MB 573

Practical on (MB 570 + MB 571)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 619

Biological Control

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 620

Insect Microbial Pathology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 621

Agricultural Pest Management

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 622

Applied Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 623

Practical on (MB 619 + MB 620)

P

3

75

MB 624

Practical on (MB 621 + MB 622)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 661

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 662

Agriculture Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 663

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ph. D. Microbiology

CDM offers full time research based course for award of Ph.D. degree.  Minimum duration for Ph. D. program is three years with a provision of extension upto 5 years.

Current Ph.D. Research Scholars

  • Mrs. Kirtika Nepal Gautam, Supervisor, Prof. Dr. Dwij R. Bhatta, Co-supervisor, Prof. Dr. Bharat Mani Pokharel
    Mr. Binod Lekhak,  Supervisor, Prof.  Dr. Dwij R. Bhatta, Co-supervisor, Prof. Dr. Anjana Singh
    Mr. Jagat Khadka, Supervisor, Dr. Prakash Ghimire, Co-supervisor, Prof. Dr. Dwij R. Bhatta
    Mr. Ram Krishna Bhandari,  Supervisor,  Prof. Dr. Anjana Singh
    Mr. Bishu Pd. Upadhyaya, Supervisor, Dr. Megha Raj Banjara
    Mr. Dhruba Khadka, Supervisor, Prof. Dr. Anjana Singh, Co-supervisor, Dr. Prakash Ghimire

    Mr. Ganesh Rai, Supervisor, Dr. Megha Raj Banjara

    Mr. Dharma Raj Bhatta, Supervisor, Prof. Dr. Dwij R. Bhatta

    Ms. Shaila Basnyat, Supervisor, Prof. Dr. Anjana Singh, Co-supervisor, Dr. Prakash Ghimire, Dr. Megha Raj Banjara

 

M. Sc. Microbiology

..

 

 

Master of Science in Microbiology

(M. Sc. Microbiology Semester System)

 

 

Revised

Curriculum 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Central Department of Microbiology

Tribhuvan University

Kirtipur, Kathmandu

 

November, 2014

 Introduction

The M. Sc. Microbiology programme was started at TribhuvanUniversity in 1990 for the first time in Nepal at the Central Department of Microbiology, TribhuvanUniversity, Kirtipur. The course structure of the programme was changed in 1999 and revised in 2008 and 2009. However, the course was based on the annual examination system.The course structure of the programme was changed into semester system in 2013.Therefore, this is a revised semester system credit based course curriculum to make it more competitive and research oriented.

The present curriculum is designed to upgrade M.Sc. Microbiology degree of Institute of Science and Technology, TribhuvanUniversity to international level in accordance to current advances in Microbiology. The new curriculum emphasizes on research based teaching learning practice. The new M.Sc. Microbiology degree programme will be semester system credit based as per international trend. The present curriculum aims to produce qualified microbiologists, molecular biologists, researchers and scientists as per national and international demand. The Master's degree holders will be able to use skills of modern molecular biology techniques in basic science research or in applied research areas of Microbiology. The graduates will be able to work as a qualified scientist for investigating the potential uses of microorganisms to produce antibiotics, antibodies, steroids, vaccines, hormones and other products of microbial origin. The Master's degree holders will be able to work as a microbiologist and research scientist in the laboratories for monitoring, identifying and helping to control infectious diseases.They will also be able to work as qualified researchers and scientists in the institutions related to food production, crop protection and soil fertility. The Master's degree holders will be eligible to be the lecturers of Microbiology programme offered by Institute of Science and Technology and other institutions of Tribhuvan University or other universities for teaching, mentoring and supervising bachelors and masters level Microbiology students.

 Course Structure

 The entire course is divided into four semesters within two academic years. The first semester course covers the disciplines of General Microbiology, Immunology, Microbial Genetics, Microbial Biochemistry and practical on these courses. The second semester offers track selection among four different disciplines of Microbiology for specialization. The four disciplines from second semester include Medical Microbiology, Public Health Microbiology, Food Microbiology and Agricultural Microbiology with their practical courses. The fourth semester is completely research oriented that includes special topics in Microbiology, Epidemiology, Research Methods and Biostatistics, and Dissertation. In the second semester students are required to choose one of the four different disciplines offered and continue with it through the Third and Fourth semesters. Students are not allowed to change the discipline once they have chosen it. The selection of discipline of Microbiology may depend upon the facilities available at the department. To gain exposure, students are encouraged to go for excursion after the second semester.

 Eligibility and Admission Procedures

Candidates having a Bachelor’s Degree in Microbiology from Tribhuvan University or equivalent degree recognized by Tribhuvan University are eligible to apply for the M. Sc. Microbiology programme. Each applicant should appear and pass entrance examination conducted by the Central Department of Microbiology. The enrollment will be based on merit. The candidates failed to get minimum qualifying marks/pass marks in the entrance examination will not be enrolled in the program.

 Hours of Instruction

 Working days: 90 days in a semester

  1. Class hours:
  • Theory: One credit is equivalent to 15 teaching hours in a semester. One theory paper of 1 credit will have 1 hour of lecture per week
  • Practical: One credit is equal to 60 practical hours in a semester. One practical paper of 1.5 or 1 credit will have 4 hours of practical per week

Total Credits: 70 credits within four semesters.

 Attendance

Student should be regular in their classes. Students failing to maintain 80 percent presence are not allowed to appear in the semester-end examinations and regarded as “not qualified”. However, in case of serious illness the students with 70 percent attendance will be given chance to appear in the semester-end exam. In this case students have to submit an authorized medical certificate.

Normal and Maximum Duration of Study

The normal duration and the maximum duration for the completion of the requirements for the program is as follows:

             Normal duration          24 months (4 academic semesters)

            Maximum duration     60 months (10 academic semesters)

Students failing to complete the requirements in 60 months have to re-enroll.

Teaching Methodology

The general teaching methodology of the program includes interactive lectures, students’ presentations, case studies and projects.

Language of Instruction: English

Examination

Students must pass the internal assessment in order to appear for the final examination. There will be two internal assessments which will count as 40% internal evaluation. The pass marks for theory is 50% and practical subjects are 50%. Institute of Science and Technology, TribhuvanUniversity will conduct semester examination. The final semester examination of 1 credit theory subject will have 1 hour of duration (3C≈3 hrs) and internal assessment will have one hour of duration for all subjects.

Evaluation/ Examination

The evaluation is based on the internal evaluation and final semester examination. The internal evaluation which is 40% of total evaluation is done by the department based on different criteria of evaluation listed below;

Internal evaluation (40%):

Attendance: 5 marks

  1. Seminar/class test/home assignment: 5 marks
  2. Project work/ case study: 5 marks
  3. Midterm  exam: 10 marks
  4. Final term evaluation: 15 marks

The remaining 60% of the evaluation is done from semester examination taken at the end of the semester. The semester examination will be conducted by the office of the Dean of Science and Technology. Students are required to obtain 50 percent to pass internal exam (evaluation) as well as semester end examination.

Make-up/retake examination

Students failing in not more than two subjects in first, second and third semester shall appear in make-up exams in following cycle of exams. Students failing in two subjects in the fourth semester shall be given opportunity to appear in make-up exam within one month after the final result.

Grading

Total marks obtained in internal and semester-end exams shall be graded on absolute bases.

The performance of a student shall be made on four point scale ranging from 0 to 4 grades. A student must secure a minimum Grade Point Average (GPA) of 2.7 or Grade B minus (B-) in each course.

Absolute grading scale

 

Grade

CGPA

Percentage Equivalent

Performance Remarks

A

4.0

90 and above

Distinction

A-

3.7

80-89.9

Very good

B+

3.3

70-79.9

First Division

B

3.0

60-69.9

Second Division

B-

2.7

50-59.9

Pass in individual subject

F

0

Below 50

Fail

The students shall receive their semester grades and academic transcript grades only in letter grades and GPA scores. Students securing only 2.7 in grade point are considered as “pass in individual subject”.

In order to pass the semester examination the student must secure a minimum of Grade ‘B’ or Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 3.0. A student who secures CGPA less than 3 may request for the opportunity to  improve the grade in two subjects. The office of the dean will provide one time opportunity to appear in semester exam. The exam of the courses to improve grade shall be held as per course cycle.

Courses

Semester I

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 501

General Microbiology (Microbial Systematics, Structure and Physiology)

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 502

Immunology and Immunochemical Techniques

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 503

Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 504

Biochemistry and Instrumentation

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 505

Practical on (MB 501 + MB 502)

P

3

75

MB 506

Practical on (MB 503 + MB 504)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Discipline I: Public Health Microbiology

 Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 552

Applied Environmental Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 553

Fundamentals of Epidemiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 554

Microbial Systematics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 555

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 552)

P

3

75

MB 556

Practical on (MB 553 + MB 554)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 602

Public Health Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 603

Emerging Infectious Diseases

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 604

Public Health Laboratory

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 605

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 602)

P

3

75

MB 606

Practical on (MB 603 + MB 604)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 652

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 653

Hospital/Field Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 654

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

Discipline II: Medical Microbiology

 Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 557

Systematic  and Diagnostic Bacteriology  -1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 558

Systematic  and Diagnostic Virology-1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 559

Systematic  and Diagnostic Parasitology-1

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 560

Systematic  and Diagnostic Mycology -1

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 561

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 557)

P

3

75

MB 562

Practical on (MB 558 + MB 559 + MB 560)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 607

Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 608

Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 609

Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology -2

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 610

Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology  -2

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 611

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 607)

P

3

75

MB 612

Practical on (MB 608 + MB 609  + MB 610)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory course

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 655

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 656

Hospital Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 657

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

Discipline III: Food and Industrial Microbiology

Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology and Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 564

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 565

General Food Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 566

Foodborne Pathogens and Toxicology 

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 567

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 564)

P

3

75

MB 568

Practical on (MB 565 + MB 566)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 613

Food Fermentation Technology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 614

Food Biotechnology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 615

Food Preservation and Processing

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 616

Total Quality Management and Quality Assurance

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 617

Practical on (MB 613 + MB 614)

P

3

75

MB 618

Practical on (MB 615 + MB 616)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 658

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 659

Industry based Internship

P

8

200

MB 660

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 Discipline IV: Agriculture Microbiology

 Semester II

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 569

Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 570

Microbial Metabolism in Soil

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 571

Soil Fertilizers

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 572

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 569)

P

3

75

MB 573

Practical on (MB 570 + MB 571)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 619

Biological Control

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 620

Insect Microbial Pathology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 621

Agricultural Pest Management

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 622

Applied Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 623

Practical on (MB 619 + MB 620)

P

3

75

MB 624

Practical on (MB 621 + MB 622)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester IV

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 661

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 662

Agriculture Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 663

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

Compulsory Courses

 Semester I

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 501

General Microbiology (Microbial Systematics, Structure and Physiology)

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 502

Immunology and Immunochemical Techniques

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 503

Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 504

Biochemistry and Instrumentation

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 505

Practical on (MB 501 + MB 502)

P

3

75

MB 506

Practical on (MB 503 + MB 504)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 Semester I: Compulsory Courses

 MB 501General Microbiology (Microbial Systematics, Structure and Physiology)

 Course Title: General Microbiology                                                                Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 501                                                                                    Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: I

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Bacterial and viral taxonomy
  2. Structure and physiology of bacteria, virus and fungi
  3. Growth and recovery of bacteria and bacteriophage

Course Contents

Bergey's Classification Of Bacteria                                                                         10  hrs

Fundamental and new approaches to bacterial taxonomy and nomenclature, Bacterial phylogeny                                                                                                 

Structure Of Bacterial Cell                                                                        6  hrs

Bacterial Growth, Growth Kinetics                                                             5  hrs

Bacterial Metabolism                                                                                                10 hrs

 Fungi: Structure And Physiology                                                                            6 hrs

Classification, Reproduction and life cycle of yeast and mold

 Viruses: Structure, Classification And Replication                                               8 hrs

Structure of viruses, Taxonomy of viruses and Bacteriophages, Replication, Cultivation enumeration and propagation of viruses and bacteriophages                                                                                  References

  1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 1 (2001), Volume 2 (2005), Volume 3 (2009), Volume 4 (2009), Volume 5 (2009)
  2. Madigan MT, Martinko JM and Parker J (2004), Brock's Biology of Microorganisms, 10th Edition, Prentice-Hall International
  3. Prescott LM, Haley JP and Klein DA (2005), Microbiology, 7th Edition (International Edition) McGraw Hill

 

 

 

MB 502        Immunology and Immunochemical Techniques

 

Course Title: Immunology and Immunochemical Techniques                        Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 502                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: I  

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to

  1. Understand basic immunology and immunopathology of viral, bacterial, parasite, autoimmune, tumor and fungal diseases
  2. Understand current immunological techniques and assays

Course Contents

 

Basic Concept Of Immunology                                                                                2 hrs

Immunology, Immunity; Anatomical feature and location of human lymphatic system, Role of organs, Cells, tissues and other components in immune system                                                      

Innate Immunity                                                                                                       3 hrs

General overview of host pathogen interaction, Non-specific defense against the microbial infections,  Physical and anatomical barriers, Cells and secretary molecules, Serum components,  Phagocytosis                                                                                                            

Complements                                                                                                             2 hrs 

Mechanism and significance of classical and alternative pathways of complement system                                                                                              

 

Cells And Tissues Of Adaptive Immunity                                                              3 hrs

Types of T cell and B cell development, Activation and function                                                    

Antigens                                                                                                                     2 hrs

Types and properties; Conditions of antigenicity                                                                              

Antibodies And Immunoglobulins                                                                           5 hrs

Molecular structure, Classes, Subclasses, Types, Subtypes, Genetic basis of diversity                    

In Vitro Antigen-Antibody Reactions                                                                      5 hrs

Types, principle, procedures and applications of precipitation, Agglutination, Antibodies labelling methods; Immunofluorescence assay, ELISA, Radioimmuno assay, Immunoelectrophoresis, Immuno blotting methods                                                                       

 

Cell Mediated Immune Response                                                                            5 hrs

Cells involved in cell mediated immunity; Structure and function of MHC in antigen processing, Presentation and effecter mechanism                                                                                                                       

                                                                              

Types And Function Of Cytokines And TLR                                                        3 hrs                                                                                                                                       

Immune Disorders                                                                                                    5 hrs

Immunological tolerance; Hypersensitivity, Autoimmunity and Allergy; Congenital and acquired Immunodeficiency                                                                                                                             

Immunopathology Of Bacterial, Viral And Parasitic Infection                            5 hrs               

Vaccinology                                                                                                               5 hrs

Overview of vaccine and vaccination, Types of vaccines- killed organism as a vaccine, Attenuated vaccine, Methods of attenuation, New experimental vaccines, Vaccine production techniques, Quality and efficacy, Adverse events following immunization, Recent developments and prospects                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

References

  1. AbbasAK and Lichtman AH (2008), Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 3rd Edition, W B Saunders Co
  2. AbbasAK, Lichtman AH and Pillai S (2007), Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 6th Edition, Elsevier
  3. Kindt TJ, Goldsby RA and Osborne BA (2006), Kuby Immunology, 6th  Edition, W. H. Freeman
  4. Roitt IM and Delves PJ (2001), Roitt’s Essential Immunology, 10th Edition, ELBS,Blackwell Scientific Publications

 

 

 


MB 503 Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology

 

Course Title: Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology                               Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 503                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: I

 

Objective

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Microbial genetics and techniques and application of molecular biology

Course Contents

 

Fundamentals On Genes, DNA, RNA, Genome And Genetics                            2 hrs

 

DNA Recombination And Transfer In Prokaryote                                               3 hrs

 

DNA Replication                                                                                                       5 hrs

Molecular mechanism of DNA, Replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells                  

 

Gene Expression                                                                                                       5 hrs

Molecular mechanism and stages of transcription in prokaryotes viruses and bacteriophages                         

Process Of Protein Synthesis                                                                                    5 hrs

Role of RNA and  translation of the genetic code, Steps involved in translation

 

Regulation Of Gene Expression                                                                              5 hrs

Mechanism of Lac-operon and Trp operon, Gene expression in eukaryotic cells                             

Mutations                                                                                                                   5 hrs

Types of Mutation, Mutagenic agents: Physical, chemical and biological, Detection of mutants    

 

Recombinant DNA Technology                                                                               8 hrs

Principle, procedures and mechanism of gene cloning, Formation of the recombinant DNA, Cloning vectors, Expression vectors, Detection of the recombinant DNA, Cloning of the eucaryotic genes in bacteria        

 

Molecular Techniques                                                                                              7 hrs

Extraction and purification of plasmid and chromosomal DNA and RNA, Principle, procedures and applications of PCR based techniques and blotting techniques in Microbiology: Plasmid profiling, PCR, Real time PCR, RFLP, DNA Finger printing, Western blotting, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, PFGE, Gene sequencing                                                                                                                                               

 

References

  1. Lewin B (2007), Genes IX, OxfordUniversity Press and Cell Press
  2. Snyder L and Champness W (2003), Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, 2nd Edition, ASM Press
  3. Sambrook J and Russell DW (2001), Molecular Cloning: A laboratory Manual (Vol I, II and III), 3rd Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

 

 MB 504 Biochemistry and Instrumentation

 

Course Title: Biochemistry and Instrumentation                                            Full Marks: 75

Course No: MB 504                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: I

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course, students will have

  1. Advanced knowledge on general and microbial biochemistry
  2. Advanced knowledge on principles and procedures of various biochemical techniques and instrumentation required for conducting analysis and research

Course Contents

 

Biochemistry                                                                                     

 

Carbohydrates                                                                                                          2 hrs

Classification, Structural  polysaccharides  (Cellulose,  Chitins,  Starch,  Agar  and Glycogen),  Mucopolysaccharides,  Sialic  acids,  Bacterial cell  wall  polysaccharides, Glycoproteins, Membrane glycoproteins, Biological functions

 

Amino Acids And Proteins                                                                                       2 hrs

Classification, Structure of amino acids, Classification of proteins, Protein conformation, Denaturation and

renaturation of proteins, Biological functions of proteins

 

Lipids And Fatty Acids                                                                                            2 hrs

Classification, nomenclature, structure and general properties and biological functions, Cholesterol structure and  biological  properties. Essential fatty acids, Glycerides, Saponification value, Rancidity of fats, Iodine number

 

Nucleic Acids                                                                                                             1 hr

Structures and Biological functions, Denaturation and renaturation of DNA

 

Enzymology                                                                                                               3 hrs

Characteristics, Nomenclature and Classification, Holoenzymes, Apoenzymes, Coenzyme, Michaelis-Menten equation, Lineweaver- Burk equation, Metal activated enzymes and metalloenzymes, Role of coenzymes, Enzyme inhibition, Allosteric enzymes          

 

Metabolism Of Carbohydrates                                                                                3 hrs

Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, Feeders pathway, Pentose phosphate pathway shunt , Fermentative pathways, Pasteur effect, Crabtree effect, Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan                    

 

Krebs Cycle                                                                                                               1 hr

Significance, reactions and energetic of the cycle, Amphibolic role of cycle, Glyoxylate cycle      

 

Oxidative Phosphorylation                                                                                       1 hr

Electron transport   chain and oxidative phosphorylation, Substrate level phosphorylation 

 

Metabolism Of Amino Acids                                                                                    4 hrs

Transamination and deamination reactions, Metabolism of ammonia, Biosynthesis  of  amino  acids,  Catabolism  of  amino  acids,  Conversion  of  amino  acids  to specialized  products,Urea,  cycle                                               

 

Metabolism Of Lipids                                                                                               4 hrs

Beta-Oxidation of fatty acids and energetic, Alpha-oxidation, Omega-oxidation, Biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization, Biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Biosynthesis of triacylglycerol 

 

Metabolism Of Nucleic Acids                                                                                   3 hrs

Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotide by De Novo and salvage pathways, Purine nucleotide interconversion, Formation of deoxyribonucleotides.          

 

Instrumentation

 

General Principle And Approaches Of Biochemical Investigations                     2 hrs

Cell disruption techniques, protein extraction and purification                                                         

 

Working Principle, Instrumentation And Application Of                        2 hrs

Phase contrast and Electron Microscopy

                                                                                                           

Principle And Applications Of                                                                                 6hrs Centrifugation techniques, Electrophoretic techniques: Starch gel, Agarose gel, Cellulose acetate, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing, Two- dimensional electrophoresis

                                               

Types, Instrumentation And Uses Of Chromatographic Techniques                  7 hrs

Ion exchange chromatography, Affinity Chromatography, Paper and Thin layer chromatography, Gel Permeation chromatography, Gas Chromatography, High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

                                                                                                                                   

Principle, Instrumentation And Application Of                                                     2 hrs   

Ultra-violet and visible spectrometry                         

 

References

  1. Nelson DL and Cox MM (2004), Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edition, Freeman
  2. Plummer DT (1988), An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry, 3rdEdition, Tata McGraw Hill
  3. Skoog DA, Holler FJ and Nieman TA (2005), Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 5th Edition, Thomson Books/Cole
  4. Stryer L (1995), Biochemistry, 4th Edition, W.H. Freeman Company, New York
  5. Voet D and Voet  J (2004),  Biochemistry, 3rd Edition, Wiley International Edition
  6. Wilson K and Walker J (Eds)(2005), Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,6thEdition, CambridgeUniversity Press
  7. Mendham J, Denny RC, Barnes JD and Thomas M (2008),  Vogel's Text Book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 6th Edition, Pearson Education

 

 

 

 

 


 MB 505 Practical based on (MB 501 + MB 502)

 

Course Title: Practical based on (MB 501+MB 502)                                     Full Marks: 75

Course No: MB 505                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: I

 

Contents

Bacterial Morphology

  1. Microscopy and staining

 

Microbial Physiology

  1. Measurement of growth of bacteria
  2. Enumeration techniques
  3. Biomass determination
  4. Determination of bacterial growth curve in broth medium
  5. Effect of environmental factors on bacterial growth
  6. Degradation experiments- Cellulose, Starch, Gelatin, Casein, Tween 80
  7. Conventional biochemical testing for identification of Enterobacteriaceae family
  8. Biochemical identification of unknown bacteria (Gram positive, Gram negative)
  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test

 

Yeast, Mold and Actinomyctes

  1. Isolation, enumeration and morphological identification of yeast and molds
  2. Growth of molds in different condition
  3. Isolation and characterization of Actinomycetes

 

Viruses

  1. Isolation and enumeration of bacteriophage
  2. One step growth curve of bacteriophage

 

Immunology and Immunochemical Techniques

Contents

1.      Handling of laboratory animals

2.      Animal inoculation Techniques using different routes

3.      Immunization of laboratory animals antiserum harvesting

  1. Purification of immunoglobulins
  2. In vitro Serological test
    • Precipitation (Gel: Single and Ouchterlony double diffusion)
    • Agglutination (Slide, Tube, Latex and Haemagglutination)
    • Neutralization test
    • ELISA
    • Immunoelectrophoresis
    • Immunoflourescence technique
    • Immunochromatographic technique
    • Complement fixation test
  1. Hypersensitivity Reactions (Montoux test, Allergy test)


MB 506 Practical based on (MB 503 + MB 504)

 

Course Title: Practical based on (MB 503 + MB 504)                                   Full Marks: 75

Course No: MB 506                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: I

 

Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology

Contents

  1. Nucleus staining (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells)
  2. Nucleic acid Extraction- Extraction and purification of chromosomal and plasmid DNA from bacteria, Extraction and purification of DNA from yeast cells, Extraction and purification of RNA from Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

3.      Confirmation of DNA extraction by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

4.      DNA Transformation expriment

5.      Detection and isolation of mutants

6.      Plasmid Profiling, PCR, Blotting

 

Biochemistry and Instrumentation

 

Biochemistry                                  

Contents
  1. Preparation of different solutions and buffer
  2. Titration curves of amino acids
  3. Qualitative tests for characterization of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
  4. Quantitative tests for characterization of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
  5. Identification of unknown carbohydrate.
  6. Isolation of protein
  7. Study effect of pH, temperature and effectors on enzyme activity
  8. Determination of enzyme kinetics km and Vmax
  9. Quantitative determination of blood sugar, cholesterol level, total protein, albumin
  10. Determination of enzyme activities: ALT, GOT, amylase

 

Instrumentation

Contents                                         

  1. Techniques of filtration and dialysis
  2. Extraction of glycogen from liver
  3. Separation of amino acids by single and double ascending paper chromatography
  4. Separation characterization of sugars, aminoacids and lipids by thin layer chromatography
  5. Separation of amino acids and proteins by ion-exchange chromatography
  6. Analysis of serum proteins by Electrophoresis
  7. Determination of molecular weight of proteins by SDS-PAGE
  8. Purification proteins by Gel filtration
  9. Analysis of biomolecules/bioactive compounds and using colorimetry, spectrophotometry and fluorimetry

 

Discipline I: Public Health Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 552

Applied Environmental Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 553

Fundamentals of Epidemiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 554

Microbial Systematics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 555

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 552)

P

3

75

MB 556

Practical on (MB 553 + MB 554)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester III

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 602

Public Health Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 603

Emerging Infectious Diseases

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 604

Public Health Laboratory

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 605

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 602)

P

3

75

MB 606

Practical on (MB 603 + MB 604)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 652

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 653

Hospital/Field Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 654

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Public Health Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 552

Applied Environmental Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 553

Fundamentals of Epidemiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 554

Microbial Systematics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 555

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 552)

P

3

75

MB 556

Practical on (MB 553 + MB 554)

P

3

75

Total

18

450


MB 551 Human Anatomy and Physiology

 

Course Title: Human Anatomy and Physiology                                             Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 551                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students will be able to understand

  1. Anatomy and physiology of various human organs and systems
  2. Relationship of function and physiology of various anatomical structures with diseased conditions and infections

Course Contents

 

Anatomy and Physiology

 

Musculoskeletal System                                                                                            5 hrs

Skeleton: Definition, Basic functions, Types, Classification, Gross and microscopic anatomy, Joints: Definition, Types and function, Muscles: Definition, Functions, Gross and microscopic anatomy                                

 

Gastro-Intestinal System                                                                                          5 hrs

Different parts of the system, Functions, Gross and microscopic anatomy of the different parts, Structure and functions of salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gall bladder                                               

Respiratory System                                                                                                   5 hrs

Different system, Different parts of system, Gross and microscopic anatomy of different parts of system, functions of parts                                                                                                                   

 

Cardiovascular System                                                                                             5 hrs

Gross and microscopic anatomy of different parts, functions of different parts                  

 

Blood, Reticuloendothelial And Immune System                                                   5 hrs

Sites of formation of blood, Composition and functions of blood cells of blood and their functions, Blood grouping, Lymph and lymphatic vessels, Different organs of reticuloendothelial system, Gross microscopic anatomy and functions of the organs                                                                                                

Nervous System                                                                                                         5 hrs

Parts and function of the system, Gross structure and microscopic anatomy of nervous system, Ventricular system and CSF and  Meninges

                                                                                                                                               

Urinary System                                                                                                         4 hrs

Different organs of the system, Gross structure, Microscopic anatomy and functions of the organs, Mechanism of urine formation and its composition                                                                                    

 

 

Endocrine System                                                                                                     3 hrs

Definition, Different organs of the system, Functions of the organs                                                            

Sensory Organs                                                                                                         4 hrs

Different organs, Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue                                                       

Reproductive System                                                                                                4 hrs

Different organs in male and female, Gross microscopic anatomy and functions of the organs      

 

References

  1. Guyton AC and Hall JE (2003), Medical Physiology, 10th  Edition, Indian Print: Saunders
  2. Standring S (2005), Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th  Edition, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone


MB 552 Applied Environmental Microbiology

 

Course Title: Applied Environmental Microbiology                                   Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 552                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course, the students

  1. Will be able to understand principles, procedures and applications of methods used for water, soil, air and other environmental samples analysis
  2. Will have advanced knowledge on drinking water Microbiology, Microbiology of solid waste and waste water, and on exploitation of environmental isolates of microorganisms in environmental biotechnology

 

Course Contents

 

Drinking Water Microbiology                                                                                 10 hrs

Safe water, Physico-chemical, Microbiological parameters of water quality, Indicators of water pollution, Water quality standards (WHO and Nepal standards), Water purification: Principle, Procedures, Removal of microorganisms, Principle and procedures of drinking water treatment: Large water supply systems (Multi barrier approach), Bottled and mineral water quality assurance

 

Water Microbiology And Water Pollution                                                             5 hrs

Over view on water pollution: Sources of pollution of river and water bodies and consequences, Types of pollutants, Eutrophication, Removal methods, Rain water harvesting

 

Sewage And Industrial Effluents                                                                            5 hrs

Composition of domestic waste, Sewage and industrial waste, Microbiology of sewage, Analysis of sewage and industrial effluents, Sewage treatment: Principles and procedures with references to removal of pollutants, Sludge treatment, Bioremediation                                           

Solid Waste Management                                                                                         5 hrs

Characterization of biodegradable and non-biodegradable solid waste, Types of microorganisms, Solid waste management: Collection, transportation, disposal (sanitary landfill, composting) and recycling methods

 

Air Microbiology And Air Pollution                                                                       5 hrs

Effect of meteorological and geographical condition on fate of microorganisms in atmosphere, Sources of air pollution and consequences, Types of air pollutants (chemical and microbiological), Monitoring of air quality (bacteriological and particulate matters), Methods of air pollution control

 

Bioactive Compounds Of Microorganisms                                                             5 hrs

Biopesticides, Bacterial, viral and fungal pesticides, Mechanism of action and applications, Antifungal, Antibacterial and bioactive compounds of actinomycetes, Bacillus and Lactobacillus

 

Medical Entomology                                                                                                 10 hrs

An introduction to medically important  arthropods and rodents, Insect morphology, biology and classification based on larval habitats of the vectors of Malaria, Japanese encephalitis, Lymphatic filariasis, Dengue, Chikungunya and Leishmaniasis, Different techniques and sampling equipments and tools for vector surveillance of Genera Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and genus Phlebotomus, objectives, specimen preservation, collection maintenance, Rearing of vector mosquitoes, Preservation, Use of keys to identify the taxonomic characters of certain vector species, Insecticide susceptibility test for adult and larval mosquitoes, Types and mechanisms of transmission of vector-borne diseases,Vector competence and vectorial capacity, Factors affecting vector competence, Components of vectorial capacity, Entomological indices, The combined effects of climate change, climatic factors, weather events and other factors in key vectors and vector-borne diseases, Entomological and ecological factors influencing the abundance of Aedes (Stegomyia)aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia)albopictus (Skuse) in urban environment,Current problems and research trends in medical entomology in Nepal, Integrated Vector Management (IVM), Elements and strategies of Integrated Vector Management.

 

References

  1. Alexander M (1971), Microbial Ecology, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York
  2. Atlas RM and Bartha R (1998), Microbial Ecology, Fundamentals and Applications, 4th Edition, The Benjamin Cummins Publication Co. Inc
  3. Bitton G (2011),  Wastewater Microbiology,  4th Edition, Wiley and Sons
  4. Hurst CJ (2001),  A Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 2nd  Edition, ASM Publications
  5. Kushner DJ (1978), Microbial Life in Extreme Environments, Academic Press, London
  6. Michel R (1999), Introduction to Environmental Microbiology, ASM book
  7. Mohapatra PK (2008), Textbook of Environmental Microbiology, IK International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd
  8. Darsie RF and Pradhan SP (1990), The mosquitoes of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosquito systematics, 22(2): 69-130
  9. Kalra NL and Bang YH (1988), Manual on Entomology in Visceral Leishmaniasis. WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi
  10. Service MW (2004), Medical Entomology for Students, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press 302pp
  11. Service M (2008), Medical Entomology for students, 4th edition, Cambridge University Press

 


MB 553 Fundamentals of Epidemiology

 

Course Title: Fundamentals of Epidemiology                                                 Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 553                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objective

Upon the completion of the course students will have knowledge on

  1. Scope and application of epidemiology for infectious diseases

 

Course Contents

 

Epidemiological Measurements                                                                               4 hrs

Health and disease, Indicators of health and disease, Frequency measures (Mortality, Morbidity, Incidence, Prevalence, Incidence Density), Measures of effect                         

 

Epidemiological Studies                                                                                            7 hrs

Cross-sectional Study, Longitudinal study, Descriptive epidemiology, Analytical epidemiology, Experimental epidemiology, Bias and errors in epidemiological studies, Types and sources of error, Selection and information bias, Confounding and effect modification, Screening: Criteria of a screening test, selection and validity of a screening test                                                                                                                                    

 

Health Survey And Surveillance                                                                              3 hrs

Types and design of survey, Disease surveillance systems                                                    

                                                                                                                                                      

Outbreak Investigation                                                                                             3 hrs

Concept of Epidemic, Endemic, Sporadic and pandemic, Investigation and management of disease outbreaks                                                                                                                                   

Infectious Disease Epidemiology And Natural History Of Disease                      6 hrs

Sources and reservoir of infection, Modes of transmission, Epidemiological markers (Phenotypic, Genotypic markers), Interactions of agent, Host and environment, Biological laws of diseases, Causation, Prognosis, Risk factors, Establishing cause of  disease

                                                                                                                                               

Management Of Diseases                                                                                         2 hrs

Disease prevention, Control, Elimination and eradication                                                    

           

Environmental And Occupational Epidemiology                                                  2 hrs

Environment and health, Exposure and dose, Dose-effect and dose–response relationship, Risk assessment, Risk management                                                                                       

 

Clinical Epidemiology                                                                                               5 hrs

 

Molecular Epidemiology                                                                                           5 hrs

 

Social Epidemiology                                                                                                  5 hrs

 

Field Epidemiology                                                                                                   3 hrs

 

 

References

  1. Detels R, McEwen J, Beaglehole R and Tanaka H (2002), Oxford Text Book of Public Health, 4th Edition, Oxford University Press
  2. Gordis L (2004), Epidemiology, 3rd Edition, Elsevier Saunders
  3. Park K (2007), Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 19th Edition, Banarasidas Bhanot Publications, India

 

 MB 554 Microbial Systemics

 

Course Title: Microbial Systematics                                                               Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 554                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objective

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will be able to understand Microbiology and diagnosis of medically important bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi

 

Course Contents

Bacteriology                                                                                                               18 hrs

Classification, structure, physiology, pathogenesis medical importance and control of bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Neisseria, Treponema, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Mycobacterium, Bacillus

Virology                                                                                                                     10 hrs

Classification, general properties, structure, medical importance and control of viruses: Rotavirus, Poxviruses, Herpes viruses, Adenoviruses, Picorna virus, Orthomyxovirus, Paramyxovirus, Arbovirus, Rhabdo viruses, Hepatitis virus, Retroviruses (HIV, HTLV etc), Emerging Viruses (SARS, Oncogenic Virus), Structure, classification and life cycle of Bacteriophages

Parasitology                                                                                                               10 hrs

Classification, general structure, life cycle, medical importance and control of parasites: Entoamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas, Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, Leishmania, Wuchereria, Blastocystis, Ascaris, Trichuris trichura, Taenia, Echinococcus, Hymenolepis nana, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma, Loaloa

Mycology                                                                                                                    7 hrs

Classification, general structure, physiology, medical importance and control of fungi: Tinea, Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Blastomyces, fungal toxins and allergens

 

References

  1. Chatterjee KD (1981), P. Ed, Parasitology (Protozoology and Helminthology), 12th edition, Chatterjee Medical Publishers, Calcutta.
  2. Greenwood D, Slack R, Barer M and Irving W (2012),  Medical Microbiology. 18th edition, Churchill Livingstone
  3. John DT and Petri Jr WA (2006), Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology, 9th Edition, Saunders
  4. Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, and Strus SE., eds (2001), Fields Virology, Volume 1 and 2, 3rd edition Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA
  5. Larone DH (2002), Medically important fungi: a guide to identification, 4th Edition, ASM Publications
  6. Murray PR, RosenthalKS and Pfaller MA (2005), Medical Microbiology, 5th edition, Elsevier Mosby
  7. Topley and Wilsons's Microbiology and Microbial Infection, Volume1-5 (1998)

 

MB 555 Practical courses on (MB 551 + MB 552)

 

Course Title: Practical course on (MB 551 + MB 552)                                  Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 555                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                 Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will have advanced skills on applications of methods used for water, soil, air and other environmental samples analysis
  2. Will have knowledge on observation of anatomical slides

 

Human Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Gross and microscopic anatomical observation of human skeleton, muscles, and microscopic observation of slides

 

Applied Environmental Microbiology

  1. Isolation and characterization of thermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles, alkalophiles and acidophiles from different environments.
  2. Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria and bio-gas production.
  3. Isolation and characterization of  Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
  4. Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of sewage/industrial effluent and solid waste.
  5. Drinking water quality analysis.
  6. Determination of BOD and COD in river water.
  7. Microbial degradation of aeromatic hydrocarbon containing compounds.
  8. Experiments on bio leaching of metals and biotransformation of pesticides.
  9. Indoor and outdoor air quality analysis.
  10. Isolation, screening and characterization of cellulose degrading microorganisms.
  11. Isolation, screening and characterization of antifungal and antibacterial actinomycetes.
  12. Isolation, screening and characterization of pesticides degrading microorganisms.

 

 

MB 556 Practical course on (MB 553 + MB 554)

 

Course Title: Practical course on (MB 553 + MB 554)                                  Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 556                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                 Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will have advanced skills on applications of methods and diagnosis of clinical samples

 

Contents

  1. Isolation and identification of medically important bacteria by conventional biochemical techniques
  2. Serotyping, bacteriophage typing, biotyping and molecular typing of common medically important bacteria
  3. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria
  4. Determination of MIC of antibiotics
  5. Serological identification-test kits, ELISA
  6. Preparation of specimen for virus culture and transport media for virus isolation
  7. Tissue culture and egg inoculation technique for the isolation of common medically important viruses
  8. Isolation of  bacteriophages, enumeration, plaque assay, characterization
  9. One step growth curve experiments
  10. Preparation of high titre bacteriophage stocks
  11. Fungal stains preparation and staining techniques
  12. Preparation of various fungal culture media and sterilization
  13. Fungal culture techniques
  14. Isolation and characterization of medically important fungi from clinical and environmental samples
  15. Isolation and characterization of dimorphic fungi
  16. Microscopic observation of medically important protozoans and helminthic parasites- Entamoeba, Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania, Taenia, Ascaris etc
  17. Stool sample collection and processing for observation of parasites by microscopy
  18. Occult blot test in the stool sample
  19. Stool culture
  20. Laboratory diagnosis of blood and tissue parasites- preparation of thick and thin smear of blood sample, staining and detection of blood and tissue parasites

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Public Health Microbiology

 

Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 602

Public Health Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 603

Emerging Infectious Diseases

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 604

Public Health Laboratory

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 605

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 602)

P

3

75

MB 606

Practical on (MB 603 + MB 604)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MB 601 Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

 

Course Title: Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 601                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III  

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course, students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Scope and application of Microbial Biotechnology
  2. Production, purification, and product recovery of industrial products of microbial origin
  3. Applications of pharmaceutical Microbiology and quality assurance systems applied in pharmaceutical industry

 

Course Contents

 

Gene Transfer Techniques                                                                                      4 hrs

Vector, Gene transfer (based on Ti and Ri Plasmid, Intermediate and helper plasmid, Binary vector, Virus as vector), Gene transfer techniques using Agrobacterium; Animal cell culture technology, Plant cell and tissue culture technology                                                                 

 

Production, Purifications And Product Recovery Of Physiologically Active Substances By Fermentation                                                                                                                          8 hrs

Antibiotics (Penicillin, Streptomycin, Polypeptide antibiotics), enzyme inhibitors, Beta carotene, Riboflavin and vitamin B12, Amino acids (Glutamic acid, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Tryptophan), Nucleic acids, Organic acids (Citric acid, Acetic acid, Lactic acid, Kojic acid), Enzymes (Amylase, Protease, Chitinase, Pectinase), Alcoholic beverages (Wine, Beer, Distilled liquor), Fermented Foods (Kinema, Soya sauce, NATO, Kimchi), Single cell protein                                                                                                                                                  

Production And Product Recovery Of                                                                   3 hrs 

Human growth hormones, Interferon, Insulin

                               

Types, Applications And Production Process Of                                                   3 hrs

Microbial bio-fertilizers 

 

Types, Applications And Production Procedures Of                                           3 hrs

Bacterial, Fungal and viral biopesticides and bioherbicides

 

Types, Mode Of Action Of Antibiotics                                                                   9 hrs

Source, Types, mode of action and clinical uses of antibiotics, Types and mode of action of antiviral agents, Antimicrobials in combination, Factors affecting choice of antimicrobial agent, Development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics 

 

 

 

 

Quality Evaluation  Of Pharmaceutical Products                                                3 hrs

 

Assays used in the quality evaluation of the antibiotics, disinfectants, preservatives, vaccines and immunological products                                                                                                                     

Microbial Spoilage And Preservation Of Pharmaceutical Products                   3 hrs

Types of spoilage, Factors affecting microbial spoilage, Preservation of pharmaceutical products, Quality assurance and management of spoilage                                                                                             

Sterilization Principles, Sterilization Control And Sterility Testing Of Pharmaceutical Products                                                                                                                           3 hrs

Principles and practice of sterilization, Sterile pharmaceutical products, Good manufacturing practice and factory hygiene, Sterilization monitors, Sterility testing methods     

 

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics                                                            6 hrs

Drug absorption (route of drug administration), Drug distribution, Drug metabolism, Drug excretion (elimination), Drug time course, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Drug-receptor interaction, Receptor structure, Drug receptor specificity, Dose-response relationships (Potency, efficacy), Dose-response functions (ED50, LD 50, therapeutic index)

                                                                                                           

References

  1. Cassida LE Jr (1996), Industrial Microbiology, New Age Int. Publishers
  2. 2.      Crueger W and Crueger A (1990), Biotechnology: A textbook of Industrial Microbiology, 2nd Edition, T. D. Brock's Editor, Sunderland Mass Sinauer Associates
  3. 3.      Denyer SP, Hodges NA and Gorman SP (Eds) (2004), Hugo and Russell’s Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 7th Edition, Blackwell Science Ltd
  4. Smith JE (1996), Biotechnology, 3rd Edition, CambridgeUniversity Press
  5. I.P./U.S.P./B.P.

 

 

 

 

 

MB 602 Public Health Microbiology

 

Course Title: Public Health Microbiology                                                      Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 602                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will have advanced knowledge on pathogenesis, patho-physiology, Microbiology of causative organisms of infectious diseases of public health concern
  2. Will have knowledge on laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control of infectious diseases of public health concern

 

Course Contents

 

Water Borne Infections                                                                                            8 hrs

Overview on common water-borne diseases, Microbiology of causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control of hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, amoebiasis, giardiasis, poliomyelitis, diarrhea (bacterial and viral)  

 

Air Borne Infections                                                                                                 8 hrs

Overview on common air-borne diseases, Microbiology of causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control of pneumonia, diphtheria, tuberculosis, influenza, measles               

 

Food Borne Diseases                                                                                                 8 hrs

Concept on food borne infections and food intoxication, Microbiology of causative microorganisms, epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control of staphylococcal, clostridial food poisoning, salmonellosis, campylobacteriasis, travelers diarrhoea and shigellosis

 

Vector Borne Diseases                                                                                              8 hrs

Overview on common vector-borne diseases and their vectors, Microbiology of causative organisms, epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and prevention and control of visceral leishmaniasis, malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue and West Nile virus and plague                                         

 

Sexually Transmitted Infections (Stis)                                                                     8 hrs

Overview on common STIs, Microbiology of causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and prevention and controls of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infections, HIV, herpes, hepatitis viruses, trichomoniasis            

 

Hospital Acquired Infection                                                                                     5 hrs

Concept on common nosocomial infections, Disinfection procedures of hospital environment, equipments and materials, methods of disposal of infective hospital waste and laboratory materials, monitoring of sanitation in hospital environment

 

References

  1. Cook G (1996), Manson’s Tropical Diseases, 20th edition. WB Saunders Company Ltd. London (UK)
  2. Baron EJ,  Peterson LR and Finegold SM (1994), Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, Mosby
  3. Greenwood D,  Slack RCB and   Peutherer  JF (2007), Medical Microbiology, 17th edition, Churchill Livingstone
  4. Park K (2005),  Park's Textbook of Social and Preventive Medicine, 18th Edition,  Banarasidas Bhanot, Jabalpur, India
  5. Edward A, Topley and Wilsons Microbiology and microbial infections, London, volumes 1-5

 

MB 603 Emerging Infectious Diseases

 

Course Title: Emerging Infectious Diseases                                                   Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 603                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objective

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will have knowledge on current issues and controversies on prevention and control of infectious diseases

 

Course Contents

 

Microbial Threats, Epidemiological Investigations, Pathogenicity Research, Vaccine Development And Other Strategies Tried To Control Disease Emergence And Spread Of Diseases                                                                                                                      20 hrs

 

Epidemic and pandemic influenza/coronaviruses (Review of the impact of previous influenza pandemics, details of responses to the current H1N1 pandemic); Vector-borne disease(History and status of global vector borne diseases, national disease concerns including West Nile virus, tick-borne diseases, and future issues of vector borne diseases); HIV/AIDS (Review of changing natural history of infection and disease, response to prevention); Tuberculosis (Review of a new and re-emerging threat to global health, implications of TB on immunocompromised populations); Emerging pathogens (SARS, Ebola, monkeypox, hantavirus, E. coli O157:H7, drug resistant hospital acquired pathogens)

 

Population Gowth And Linkage With Poverty And Infectious Diseases 2 hrs

 

Global Climate Change And Infectious Disease                                                    3 hrs

 

Sanitation And Related Diseases                                                                             5 hrs

History, Status of water-borne diseases and global, local, national issues and interests and future issues on water borne infectious diseases, Water safety plan

 

Immunization And Anti-Infectives                                                                          5 hrs

Role of vaccines and anti-infectives in public health practice and clinical medicine, Vaccine research, Development and availability, Immunization schedules, Investigation of adverse events, Efficacy

 

Biosafety, Biosecurity, Bioterrorism                                                                        5 hrs

Overview, Biosafety, Biosecurity and bioterrorism, Smallpox and polio, Eradication programs and reality of infectious diseases eradication

 

Foodborne Diseases                                                                                                  5 hrs

Current status of food borne diseases, Health implications, Prevention and food safety

 

References

Research papers based course, journals, websites of organizations (WHO, CDC, NIH etc.)

 

MB 604 Public Health Laboratory

 

Course Title: Public Health Laboratory                                                          Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 604                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objective

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will have knowledge on laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases of public health concern

 

Course Contents

 

Laboratory Safety And Quality Control                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 hrs

Laboratory organization and quality control of Microbiology laboratory and laboratory safety                                                                                                                                          

 

Common Diagnostic Methods Of Identification And Typing Of Bacteria          10 hrs

Principle and procedures of diagnostic methods, Conventional identification methods, Microscopic methods, Serological methods, Typing methods, Methods for testing antimicrobial susceptibility

           

Laboratory Diagnosis Of Various Clinical Conditions                                          10 hrs

Selection, collection and transport of specimen for microbiological examination, Conventional and rapid diagnosis methods for: Bacterimia, Septicemia, Pyrexia, Meningitis, Respiratory tract infection (Lower and Upper), Urinary tract infection, Gastrointestinal tract infection, Food poisoning, Cholera, Genital Tract Infections: Bacterial vaginosis, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Sexually transmitted infections, Eye Infection, Ear Infection, Oral Infections, anaerobic infection of oral cavity, Gas gangrene, Tuberculosis and Leprosy

 

Laboratory Diagnosis Of Viral, Parasitic And Fungal Infections                        17 hrs

Specimens, methods for diagnosis of parasite, virus and fungal infections

 

Molecular Methods For Disease Diagnosis                                                             3 hrs   

 

Field Level Laboratory Testing Requirements                                                      3 hrs

 

References

 

  1. Ash LR and Orihel TC (1987), Parasites: A Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification, American Society of Clinical PathologistsChicago, Illinois
  2. Baron EJ, Peterson LR and Finegold SM  (eds) (1990), Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology,  9th ed. St. Louis: Mosby
  3. Cheesbrough M (1996), Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries, Vol: 1 and11, Butterworth Heinmann Ltd. Oxford
  4. Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP and Simmons A (eds) (1996), Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology,  14th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, New York
  5. Cook G (1996), Manson’s Tropical Diseases, 20th edition, WB Saunders Company Ltd.: London (UK)
  6. Garcia LS (2004), Clinical Laboratory Management, ASM Press
  7. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA and Yolken RH (ed) (2003), Manual of clinical Microbiology, 8th  ed, Washington, DC, ASM Press
  8. Topley and Wilsons Microbiology and microbial infections, Edward Arnold, London, 1-5 vol

 

MB 605 Practical courses on (MB 601 + MB 602)

 

Course Title: Practical course on (MB 601+MB 602)                                    Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 605                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will have advanced skills on applications of methods used for pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical industries

 

Course Contents

 

Microbial Biotechnology

  1. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus thuriengiensis and purification of crystal protein
  2. Production, purification and characterization of industrially important enzymes of microbial origin
  3. Production, separation, partial purification and characterization of antimicrobial compounds from Bacillus spp. and Actinomycetes
  4. Production and purification of organic acids using microorganisms
  5. Field visit to industries
 
Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  1. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: Disc diffusion methods
  2. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial compounds by tube and agar dilution methods; E-Test
  3. Monitoring of sterilization
  4. Sterility and quality testing of pharmaceutical products
  5. Testing of efficacy of disinfectants
  6. Microbial limit test of raw materials used in pharmaceutical industries
  7. Microbial monitoring of environment of pharmaceutical industries

 

 

 

 

MB 606 Practical courses on (MB 603 + MB 604)

 

Course Title: Practical course on (MB 603 + MB 604)                                  Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 606                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: III

 

Objective

Upon completion of the course the students

  1. Will have advanced skills on applications of methods and diagnosis of clinical samples

 

Course Contents

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever by blood culture
  2. Laboratory diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract infection by stool culture
  3. Laboratory diagnosis of Cholera
  4. Throat swab culture
  5. Sputum culture and microscopy
  6. Pus culture
  7. Culture of vaginal swabs
  8. Microscopy of Treponema
  9. Laboratory diagnosis of eye infections
  10. Laboratory diagnosis of ear infections
  11. Laboratory diagnosis of vector borne diseases and identification of common insect vectors

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Public Health Microbiology

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 652

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 653

Hospital/Field Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 654

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

MB 651 Research Methods and Biostatistics

 

Course Title: Research Methods and Biostatistics                                        Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 651                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have knowledge on

  1.  Research methods in Microbiology
  2. Application of biostatistical methods in microbiological research.

 

Course Contents

 

Research Methods

 

Research Methods                                                                                                     15 hrs

Introduction and objectives of research, Criteria of good research question, Research process, Priority areas, Objectives/ Hypothesis setting, Literature review, Critical appraisal, Meta analysis, Ethical issues in research: Salient point of the international guidelines, General ethical principles, Informed consent                                                                           

Scientific Writing                                                                                                      5 hrs

Paper writing, Proposal writing, Thesis/report writing (Seminar presentations)                                                                                                                    

Biostatistics

 

Sampling, Data Collection And Frequency Distribution                                       5 hrs

Sample and Sampling, Sampling design and Sample selection, Sample size and calculation, Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, Frequency distribution                                                                                                                                               

Data Analysis And Computer Application                                                             20 hrs

Quantitative data analysis (descriptive analysis, inferential analysis- chi square, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, 95% CI, Standard error, Odds ratio, p-value, Regression analysis), Data entry and data analysis using computer software (SPSS, STATA, SAS, Epi Info etc.)                                                                                                                                  

References

  1. Daniel WW (2004), Biostatistics: A foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, 8th Edition,Wiley

2.      Mahajan BK (2007), Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd, India

 
MB 654 Dissertation

 

Course Title: Dissertation                                                                               Full Marks: 100

Course No.: MB 654                                                                                      Pass Marks: 50

Nature of course: Laboratory based Research Project (4 credits)                  Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of dissertation the students will

  1. Have knowledge and skills to conduct original scientific research
  2. Have deep understanding of research methods  related to Microbiology
  3. Be able to design an experiment, generate, analyze scientific data and conclude important findings
  4. Develop scientific writing and presentation skills

 

Course Description

 

Individual students will be assigned relevant research topics related to their field of study by concerned central department/campus/college. Students will perform required field work and laboratory experiments within this semester. The research will be supervised by faculty member(s) of microbiology of concerned central department/campus/college. Students should submit research proposal on assigned topic within first week of this semester and must be approved by the institutional review board. After completion of research work, the student should write the dissertation/thesis in standard format on the basis of data/findings generated during the research works. The student will submit required number of copies of their dissertation to concerned department/campus/college for evaluation. The submitted dissertation will be approved by head of the central department/campus chief/coordinator. On the recommendation of head of department/campus chief/coordinator, the Institute of Science and Technology will appoint a related expert as an external examiner from the panel of approved examiners to evaluate the submitted dissertation. On the recommendation of external examiner, viva-voce open defence will be organized for evaluation of dissertation by concerned department/campus/college. The final evaluation of dissertation will be made by a panel of external and internal examiners, head of the department and supervisor(s). Students will be encouraged to publish the dissertation findings in peer reviewed microbiology journals in the form of original research article.

    

 

    


Discipline II: Medical Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 557

Systematic  and Diagnostic Bacteriology  -1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 558

Systematic  and Diagnostic Virology-1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 559

Systematic  and Diagnostic Parasitology-1

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 560

Systematic  and Diagnostic Mycology -1

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 561

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 557)

P

3

75

MB 562

Practical on (MB 558 + MB 559 + MB 560)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester III

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 607

Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 608

Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 609

Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology -2

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 610

Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology  -2

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 611

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 607)

P

3

75

MB 612

Practical on (MB 608 + MB 609  + MB 610)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 655

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 656

Hospital Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 657

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medical Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 551

Human Anatomy and Physiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 557

Systematic  and Diagnostic Bacteriology  -1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 558

Systematic  and Diagnostic Virology-1

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 559

Systematic  and Diagnostic Parasitology-1

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 560

Systematic  and Diagnostic Mycology -1

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 561

Practical on (MB 551 + MB 557)

P

3

75

MB 562

Practical on (MB 558 + MB 559 + MB 560)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


MB 551 Human Anatomy and Physiology

 

Course Title: Human Anatomy and Physiology                                             Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 551                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students will be able to understand

  1. Anatomy and physiology of various human organs and systems
  2. Relationship of function and physiology of various anatomical structures with diseased conditions and infections

Course Contents

 

Anatomy And Physiology

 

Musculoskeletal System                                                                                            5 hrs

Skeleton: Definition, Basic functions, Types, Classification, Gross and microscopic anatomy, Joints: Definition, Types and function, Muscles: Definition, Functions, Gross and microscopic anatomy                                

 

Gastro-Intestinal System                                                                                          5 hrs

Different parts of system, Functions, Gross and microscopic anatomy of the different parts, Structure and functions of salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gall bladder                                               

Respiratory System                                                                                                   5 hrs

Different system, Different parts of system, Gross and microscopic anatomy of different parts of system, Functions of parts                                                                                                                  

 

Cardiovascular System                                                                                             5 hrs

Gross and microscopic anatomy of different parts, Functions of different parts                 

 

Blood, Reticuloendothelial And Immune System                                                   5 hrs

Sites of formation of blood, Composition and functions of blood cells of blood and functions, Blood groups, Lymph and lymphatic vessels, Different organs of reticuloendothelial and system, Gross, microscopic anatomy and functions of the organs                                                               

Nervous System                                                                                                         5 hrs

Parts and function of system, Gross structure and microscopic anatomy of nervous system, Ventricular system and CSF, Meninges                                                                                                               

 

Urinary System                                                                                                         4 hrs

Different organs of system, Gross structure, Microscopic anatomy and functions of the organs, Mechanism of urine formation and its composition                                              

                                                                                                                                     

 

Endocrine System                                                                                                     3 hrs

Definition, Different organs of the system, Functions of the organs                                                            

Sensory Organs                                                                                                         4 hrs

Different organs, Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue                                                       

Reproductive System                                                                                                4 hrs

Different organs in male and female, Gross microscopic anatomy and functions of the organs      

 

References

  1. Guyton AC and Hall JE (2003), Medical Physiology, 10th  Edition, Indian Print: Saunders
  2. Standring S (2005), Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th  Edition, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


MB 557 Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology- 1

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology -1                              Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 557                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Structure, physiology, pathogenesis, isolation, characterization, identification and typing of medically important bacteria
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect bacteria from clinical specimens

 

Coures contents

 

Laboratory Safety And Quality Management                                                               5 hrs

Laboratory organization and biosafety requirements of Microbiology laboratory, Quality control and management of Microbiology laboratory, Concepts of biosecurity, Bioterrorism                                                                   

Methods Of Identification And Typing Of Bacteria                                                     7 hrs

Principles and procedures of different diagnostic methods:Conventional identification methods including morphological, cultural and biochemical properties, Microscopic methods, Rapid and automated methods, Serological methods. Typing methods: Principle, procedure and application of biotyping, Serotyping, Phagetyping, Molecular typing methods, Methods for testing antimicrobial susceptibility –Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, MIC determination, ESBL testing                                              

 

Selection, Collection, Transportation And Processing Of Specimens For Conventional And Rapid Laboratory Diagnosis Of Bacterial Infections                                           5 hrs

 

Classification, Structure, Physiology, Pathogenesis, Medical Importance And Laboratory Diagnosis Of Aerobic/Microaerophilic Gram Negative Rods And Cocci

                                            8 hrs

Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Brucella, Legionella, Neisseria, Branhamella, Acinetobacter, Bordetella  and Psuedomonas                                                                                       

 

Facultative Anaerobic Gram Negative Rods                                                                8 hrs

Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus and Haemophilus                                           

 

Gram Positive Cocci                                                                                            3 hrs

Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus   and other bacteria                          

 

Gram Positive Endospore Forming Rods and Cocci                                                    2 hrs                                                                               

 Bacillus, Clostridium and other bacteria                                                                                   

 

Clinical Manifestation and  Laboratory Diagnosis                                                       7 hrs

Respiratory tract infection, Urinary tract infection, Gastrointestinal tract infection: Cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases, food poisoning, Gonorrhoea, Gas gangrene, Peptic ulcer, Enteric fever

 

 

References

  1. Baron EJ, Peterson LR and Finegold SM (1990), Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, Mosby
  2. Collier L, Balows A, Sussman M and Hausler WJ  (1998), Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Vol 3: Bacterial Infections, Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections
  3. Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP and Simmons A (eds) (1996), Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology.  14th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, New York
  4. Geoffrey R, Smith and Charles SF, Easmon Ed (1990), Topley and Wilson's Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 8th edition, Volume 2-4, Edward Arnold Publication UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


MB 558 Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-1

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Virology- 1                                    Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 558                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Structure, physiology, pathogenesis, isolation, characterization and identification of medically important viruses
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect viruses from clinical specimens

 

Coures contents

 

Techniques Of Diagnostic Virology                                                                         10 hrs

Cultivation and purification of viruses, Principles and applications of serodiagnostic methods: haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests, complement fixation, neutralization, western blot, RIPA, flowcytometry and immunohistochemistry, Nucleic acid based diagnosis: Nucleic acid hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, microarray and nucleotide sequencing, Microscopic techniques: Fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopic techniques

 

Selection, Collection, Transportation And Processing Of  Specimens For Laboratory Diagnosis Of Viral Infections                                                                                 8hrs                                           

 

Classification, Structure, Physiology, Pathogenesis, Medical importance, Control  And laboratory Diagnosis Of Poxviruses                                                                     2 hrs

Smallpox virus                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

Herpesviruses                                                                                                    5 hrs

Alphaherpesviruses Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster, Betaherpesvviruses Cytomegaloviruses, Human herpesviruses 6 and 7, Gammaherpesviruses Epstein Barr viruses

 

Adenoviruses, Parvoviruses, Papovaviruses                                                              2 hrs

 

Picornaviruses                                                                                                               2 hrs

 

Orthomyxovirus                                                                                                            3 hrs

Influenza virus         

                                                       

Paramyxoviruses                                                                                                         3 hrs

Measles virus, Mumps virus, Human parainfluenza viruses, Human respiratory syncytial virus

    

Arboviruses                                                                                                               5hrs

Togaviridae and Flaviridae (Dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus)

 

Retroviruses                                                                                                               5 hrs

HIV and HTLV       

                                                              

References

  1. Topley WWC and Wilson GS (1990),  Parker MT and Collier LH (Editor) Topley and Wilson’s Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 8th edition. Hodder Arnold.
  2. Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, and Strus SE., eds (2001), Fields Virology Volume 1 and 2, 3rd edition Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Stephenson JR and Warnes A (1998),  Diagnostic Virology Protocols: Methods in Molecular Medicine, Humana press.
  4. Flint SJ, Enquist LW, Krung R, Racaniello VR and Skalka AM (2000),  Principles of Virology, Molecular Biology, Pathogenesis and Control. ASM Press

 

 

 

 


MB 559 Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology-1

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology -1                               Full Marks: 50

Course No. MB 559                                                                                        Pass Marks: 25

Nature of Course: Theory (2 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Structure, physiology,  pathogenesis, isolation, characterization and identification of medically important parasites
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect parasites from clinical specimens

 

Coures contents

 

Parasites, Parasitism, Host Relations, Parasitic Diseases Prevalent In Nepal And World                                                                                                                                 3 hrs                                                                                                                

 

Clinically Important Human Parasites                                                                      20  hrs

Lumen dwelling/intestinal protozoa: Amebae: Entamoeba histolytica, Flagellates: Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis Ciliates: Balantidium coli, Sporozoa: Isospora belli, Coccidia: Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora, Intestinal Nematodes: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancyclostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Anisakiasis: Anisakis (Terranova), Uncommon Intestinal nematodes of humans: Acanthocephala Blood and tissue dwelling nematodes: Filariae, Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus Other Filarial infections in humans: Dirofilaria tenuis, The Guinea worm: Dracunculus medinensis, Other tissue nematodes: Trichinella spiralisVisceral larva migrant: Toxocarca canis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis:  A. cantonensis (rats lungworms) Malaria: Plasmodium Tissue schizonts, hypnozoites, gametocytes Other Blood and Tissue Dwelling Protozoa: Trypanosoma  Leishmania spp. The Tissue Coccidia: Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp. Other Apicomplexa (Sporozoa): Babesia spp. Opportunistic free living Amebae: Acanthamoeba spp.

 

Diagnostic Procedures                                                                                              7 hrs

Collection, preservation and shipment of specimens for parasitological examinations, Macroscopic and microscopic examination of fecal specimens, Additional techniques for stool examination, Examination of other specimens from the intestinal tract and the urogenital system, Techniques for processing of sputum, aspirates and biopsy material

 

References

  1. Chattejee KD (Editor) (1981),  Parasitology (Protozoology and Helminthology), 12th edition, Chatterjee Medical Publishers, India
  2. Cox FEg,  Kreier JP and Wakelin D (1998), Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections Vol 5: Parasitology, Hodder Arnold
  3. Fleck SL and Moody AH (1973), Diagnostic Techniques in Medical Parasitology, University Press, Cambridge
  4. Garcia LS and Bruckner DA (1997), Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 3rd Edition, ASM Press
  5. John DT and Petri Jr WA (2006), Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology, 9th Edition, Saunders


MB 560 Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology-1

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology -1                                  Full Marks: 25

Course No. MB 560                                                                                        Pass Marks: 12.5

Nature of Course: Theory (1 credit)                                                                Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Structure, physiology,  pathogenesis, isolation, characterization and identification of medically important fungi
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect fungi from clinical specimens

 

Coures contents

 

Techniques Of Diagnostic Mycology                                                                       5 hrs

Direct microscopic examination and culture, Serological diagnosis, Histological diagnosis, Principles and applications of molecular methods in the diagnosis of fungal infections

 

Selection, Collection, Transportation, Processing And Preservation Of Specimens For Laboratory Diagnosis Of Fungal Infections                                                                                3 hrs

 

Laboratory Diagnosis Of Fungal Diseases                                                              2 hrs

Cutaneous, Subcutaneous, Systemic and opportunistic mycoses                                                                                                                                     

 

Classification, Structure, Physiology, Pathogenesis, Medical Importance, Control And Laboratory Diagnosis Of                                                                                     5 hrs

Trichophyton, Epidermatophyton, Microsporum                                                                               

 

References

  1. Larone DH (2002), Medically important fungi: A guide to identification, ASM Press
  2. Topley WWC and Wilson GS (1990), Parker MT and Collier LH (Editor), Topley and Wilson’s Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 8th edition, Hodder Arnold

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


MB 561 Practical based on (MB 551+MB 557)

 

Course Title: Practical based on (MB 551+MB 557)                                     Full Marks: 75

Course No: MB 561                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: II

 

Human Anatomy and Physiology

 

Contents

  1. Anatomical observation of human skeleton and organ system
  2. Microscopic observation of histological and anatomical slides
  3. Experiments on human physiology

 

Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-1

 

Contents

1        Isolation and identification of medically important facultative anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria following conventional culture methods

2        Serotyping, and molecular typing of medically important bacteria

3        Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates in above experiments

4        Serological/Immunological tests for detection of bacterial infections-

  • RPR
  • TPHA
  • ASO titre
  • Widal test
  • Direct/Indirect immunofluorescence test
  • precipitation test
  • Mantoux test
  • ELISA
  • Western blot
  • CFT
  • RIA

5        Laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever

6        Laboratory diagnosis of GIT infections including cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, peptic ulcer

7        Laboratory diagnosis of upper and lower respiratory tract infection

8        Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infection

9        Laboratory diagnosis of STI including, gonorrhea, syphilis

10    Investigation of nosocomial infections in hospital environment, detecting the point sources.

 


MB 562 Practical based on (MB 558 + MB 559 + MB 560)

 

Course Title: Practical based on (MB 558 + MB 559 + MB 560)                  Full Marks: 75

Course No: MB 562                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: II

 

Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-1

 

Contents

  1. Preparation of media and reagents, sterility checking, glassware decontamination, washing, sterilization
  2. Propagation of viruses: Tissue culture and egg inoculation technique for the isolation of common medically important viruses, Routes of inoculations in embryonated eggs
  3. Preparation of virus stocks: Plaque assay and determination of TCID50
  4. Detection of virus / viral gene / viral antigen / antiviral antibody by ELISA, Immunofluorescence assay, Haemagglutination , Agar gel diffusion, Polymerase Chain Reaction
  5. Demonstration of Electron Microscopy
  6. Preparation of high titre bacteriophage stocks and one step growth curve experiments

 

Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology-1

 

Contents

  1. Microscopic observation of medically important protozoans and helminthic parasites-Entamoeba, Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania, Taenia, Ascaris etc.
  2. Stool sample collection and processing for observation of parasites by microscopy, Copro-Antigen detection (intestinal parasites)
  3. Occult blood testing  in the stool sample
  4. Laboratory diagnosis of blood and tissue parasites- preparation of thick and thin smear of blood sample, staining and detection of blood and tissue parasites
    • Malaria
    • Kala-azar ( Visceral Leishmaniasis)
    • Lymphatic filariasis
  1. Laboratory diagnosis of vector borne diseases and identification of common insect vectors
    • Mosquitoes: Anopheles, Aedes, Culex
    • Sand flies: Phlebotomas

 

Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology-1

 

Contents

  1. Preparation of fungal stains and performing the staining following the techniques
    • LPCB
    • KOH
  1. Fungal culture  including preparation of media for culture and preparation of sugar fermentation tests useful for identification of fungal organisms
  2. Isolation and characterization of medically important fungi from clinical specimens
  3. Isolation and characterization of dimorphic fungi


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medical Microbiology

 

Semester III

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

MB 601

Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 607

Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 608

Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-2

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 609

Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology -2

T

2

50 (30+20)

MB 610

Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology  -2

T

1

25 (15+10)

MB 611

Practical on (MB 601 + MB 607)

P

3

75

MB 612

Practical on (MB 608 + MB 609  + MB 610)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MB 601 Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology

 

Course Title: Microbial Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Microbiology Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 601                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                             Semester: III  

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course, students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Scope and application of Microbial Biotechnology
  2. Production, purification, and product recovery of industrial products of microbial origin
  3. Applications of pharmaceutical Microbiology and quality assurance systems applied in pharmaceutical industry

 

Course Contents

 

Gene Transfer Techniques                                                                                      4 hrs

Vector, Gene transfer (based on Ti and Ri Plasmid, Intermediate and helper plasmid, Binary vector, Virus as vector), Gene transfer techniques using Agrobacterium; Animal cell culture technology, Plant cell and tissue culture technology                                                                 

 

Production, Purifications And Product Recovery Of Physiologically Active Substances By Fermentation                                                                                                                          8 hrs

Antibiotics (Penicillin, Streptomycin, Polypeptide antibiotics), enzyme inhibitors, Beta carotene, Riboflavin and vitamin B12, Amino acids (Glutamic acid, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Tryptophan), Nucleic acids, Organic acids (Citric acid, Acetic acid, Lactic acid, Kojic acid), Enzymes (Amylase, Protease, Chitinase, Pectinase), Alcoholic beverages (Wine, Beer, Distilled liquor), Fermented Foods (Kinema, Soya sauce, NATO, Kimchi), Single cell protein                                                                                                                          

 

Production And Product Recovery Of                                                                   3 hrs 

Human growth hormones, Interferon, Insulin

                               

Types, Applications And Production Process Of                                                   3 hrs

Microbial bio-fertilizers 

 

Types, Applications And Production Procedures Of                                           3 hrs

Bacterial, Fungal and viral biopesticides and bioherbicides

 

Types, Mode Of Action Of Antibiotics                                                                   9 hrs

Source, Types, mode of action and clinical uses of antibiotics, Types and mode of action of antiviral agents, Antimicrobials in combination, Factors affecting choice of antimicrobial agent, Development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics 

 

Quality Evaluation Of Pharmaceutical Products                                                   2 hrs

Assays used in the quality evaluation of the antibiotics, disinfectants, preservatives, vaccines and immunological products                                                                                                                     

Microbial Spoilage And Preservation Of Pharmaceutical Products                    4 hrs

Types of spoilage, Factors affecting microbial spoilage, Preservation of pharmaceutical products, Quality assurance and management of spoilage         

                                                                                   

Sterilization Principles, Sterilization Control And Sterility Testing Of Pharmaceutical Products                                                                                                                    3 hrs

Principles and practice of sterilization, Sterile pharmaceutical products, Good manufacturing practice and factory hygiene, Sterilization monitors, Sterility testing methods     

 

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics                                                            6 hrs

Drug absorption (route of drug administration), Drug distribution, Drug metabolism, Drug excretion (elimination), Drug time course, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Drug-receptor interaction, Receptor structure, Drug receptor specificity, Dose-response relationships (Potency, efficacy), Dose-response functions (ED50, LD 50, therapeutic index)

                                                                                                                       

References

  1. Cassida LE Jr (1996), Industrial Microbiology, New Age Int. Publishers
  2. 2.      Crueger W and Crueger A (1990), Biotechnology: A textbook of Industrial Microbiology. 2nd Edition, T. D. Brock's Editor, Sunderland Mass Sinauer Associates
  3. 3.      Denyer SP, Hodges NA and Gorman SP (Eds) (2004), Hugo and Russell’s Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 7th Edition, Blackwell Science Ltd
  4. I.P./U.S.P./E.P.
  5. Smith JE (1996), Biotechnology, 3rd Edition, CambridgeUniversity Press

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


MB 607 Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-2

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-2                               Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 607                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will

  1. Structure, physiology ,  pathogenesis, isolation, characterization, identification and typing of medically important bacteria
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect bacteria from clinical specimens

 

Course Contents

 

Classification, Structure, Physiology, Pathogenesis, Medical Importance And Laboratory Diagnosis Of Gram Negative Rods And Cocci                                         7 hrs   

Acetobacter, Kingella, Moraxella, Comomonas, Alcaligens, Francisella, Providencia, Gardenella, Pleisomonas, Hafnia, Morganella, Serratia, Pasteurella  and other bacteria   

 

Gram Negative Anaerobic Rods And Cocci                                                           2 hrs

 Bacteroides, Veillonella   and other bacteria                                                                             

 

Gram Positive Non Sporing Rods                                                                           3 hrs                                                                               

 Lactobacillus, Listeria, Corynebacterium and other bacteria                                                                                                                    

Actinomycetes, Nocardia And Related Bacteria                                                   2 hrs

 

Mycobacterium                                                                                                           4 hrs

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MOTT, Mycobacterium leprae

 

The Spirochaetes: Leptospira, Treponema, Borrelia                                                4 hrs

 

Rickettsia: Coxiella, Riketssia, Chlamydia                                                                4 hrs

Mycoplasma                                                                                                               1 hr

 

Clinical Manifestation and Laboratory Diagnosis                                                  15 hrs

Genital tract infections-Bacterial vaginosis, Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (PID), Sexually transmitted infections- Syphilis, Chlamydial infection, Eye infection, Ear infection, Oral infections: Mandibular abscess, Gingivitis, and anaerobic oral infections, Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Bacteremia, Septicemia (Meningitis, Endocarditis)

 

Emerging Bacterial Diseases, Bioterrorism, Biosecurity                                       3 hrs

 

 

 

References

  1. Baron EJ, Peterson LR and Finegold SM (1990), Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, Mosby
  2. Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP and Simmons A (eds) (1996), Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology,  14th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, New York

 

  1. Topley WWC and  Wilson GS (1990), Parker MT and Collier LH (Editor), Topley and Wilson’s Diagnostic  Bacteriology, Hodder Arnold

 

 

MB 608  Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-2

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-2                                     Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 608                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will

  1. Structure, physiology, pathogenesis, isolation, identification and characterization of medically important viruses
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect viruses from clinical specimens

 

Course Contents

 

Classification, Structure, Physiology, Pathogenesis, Medical Importance And Laboratory Diagnosis Of Rhabdoviruses                                                           3 hrs

 

Hepatitis Viruses                                                                                                       5 hrs

 

Coronaviruses, Toroviruses And Arteriviruses                                                     3 hrs

 

Human Enteric RNA Viruses                                                                                  2 hrs

Calciviruses and Astroviruses                           

 

Reoviruses, Rotaviruses, Orbiviruses And Coltiviruses                                        6 hrs

 

Bunyaviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses                                                                3 hrs

 

Prions                                                                                                                         4 hrs

 

Emerging Viral Infections And Their Early Diagnosis                                          9 hrs             

 

Immunoprophylaxis Of Viral Diseases                                                                   10 hrs

Types of viral vaccines, Vaccines recommended in Nepal, Other viral vaccines, Antiviral drugs

                                   

References

  1. Topley WWC and Wilson GS (1990), Parker MT and Collier LH (Editor), Topley and Wilson’s Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 8th edition, Hodder Arnold
  2. Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP, Roizman B, and Strus SE., eds (2001), Fields Virology Volume 1 and 2, 3rd edition Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA
  3. Stephenson JR and Warnes A (1998), Diagnostic Virology Protocols: Methods in Molecular Medicine, Humana press
  4. Flint SJ, Enquist LW, Krung R, Racaniello VR and Skalka AM (2000), Principles of Virology, Molecular Biology, pathogenesis and control, ASM Press

 


MB 609 Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology-2

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology -2                                  Full Marks: 50

Course No. MB 609                                                                                         Pass Marks: 25

Nature of Course: Theory (2 credits)                                                               Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Structure, physiology,  pathogenesis, isolation, identification and characterization of medically important parasites
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect parasites from clinical specimens

 

Course Contents

 

Structure, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Laboratory Diagnosis, Including Enumeration Of Important Human Parasite                                                                                              20 hrs

 

The Trematodes: Intestinal flukes: Fasciolopsis buski, The liver flukes: Fasciola hepatica, The Blood Flukes: Schistosoma mansoni, The Lung Flukes: Paragonimus westermanii, Uncommon Trematode: Acanthoparyphium, Alaria, Cestodes: Taenia solium, T. saginata, T. saginata asiatica, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana,  Uncommon Cestode-Humans: Bertiella, Diplogonoporus grandis, Hymenolepis microstoma, Mathevotaenia, Mesocestoides, Raillietina celebensis

Parasitic infections in the compromised host, Nosocomial and acquired parasitic infections, Immunology of parasitic infections, Antibody and antigen detection in parasitic infections, Histologic identification of parasites, Medically important arthopods

 

Diagnostic Procedures                                                                                              10 hrs

Collection, preservation and shipment of body fluid specimens for laboratory diagnosis of parasites, macroscopic and microscopic examination of specimens, additional techniques for examination , Parasite recovery: Culture methods, animal inoculation and xenodiagnosis, Fixation and special preparation of fecal parasite specimens and arthropods, Artifacts that confused with parasitic organisms, Equipment, Supplies, Safety and quality assurance recommendations for a diagnostic parasitology laboratory

 

References

  1. Chatterjee KD (Editor) (1981), Parasitology (Protozoology and Helminthology), 12th edition, Chatterjee Medical Publishers, India
  2. 2.      Cox FEg,  Kreier JP and Wakelin D (1998), Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections Vol 5: Parasitology, Hodder Arnold
  3. Fleck SL and Moody AH (1973), Diagnostic Techniques in Medical Parasitology, University Press, Cambridge
  4. Garcia LS and Bruckner DA (1997), Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 3th Edition,  ASM Press
  5. Grell KG (1973), Protozoology, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg
  6. John DT and Petri Jr WA (2006), Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology, 9th Edition, Saunders
  7. Sleigh M (1973), The Biology of Protozoa: p. I-VIII, 1-315; Edward Arnold (London) and American Elsevier (New York)
  8. Sleigh MA (1989),  Protozoa and other protists, 4th Edition, Edward Arnold, London

 

 


MB 610 Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology-2

 

Course Title: Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology-2                                   Full Marks: 25

Course No. MB 610                                                                                        Pass Marks: 12.5

Nature of Course: Theory (1 credit)                                                               Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will

  1. Structure, physiology,  pathogenesis, isolation, characterization and identification of medically important fungi
  2. Principles, procedures and applications of diagnostic methods useful to detect fungi from clinical specimens

 

Course Contents

 

Classification, Structure, Physiology, Pathogenesis, Medical Importance And Laboratory Diagnosis Of                                                                                                  10 hrs                                                                                                                     

Candida, Fusarium, Chromomycosis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Histoplasma, Coccidioidomyecs, Paracoccidioidomyces                                                                                               

Fungal Toxins And Allergies                                                                                   2 hrs

 

Antifungal Agents                                                                                                     3 hrs

Potential targets and modes of action of antifungal agents, Antifungal agents in clinical practice, Susceptibility testing, Antifungal drug resistance, Monitoring antifungal therapy

 

References

  1. Larone DH (2002), Medically important fungi: A guide to identification, ASM Press
  2. Topley WWC and Wilson GS (1990), Parker MT and Collier LH (Editor), Topley and Wilson’s Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 8th edition. Hodder Arnold

 

 

 

 


MB 611 Practical based on (MB 601 + MB 607)

 

Course Title: Practical based on (MB 601+MB 607)                                     Full Marks: 75

Course No: MB 611                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: III

 

Microbial Biotechnology

 

Contents

  1. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus thuriengiensis and purification of crystal protein
  2. Production, purification and characterization of industrially important enzymes of microbial origin
  3. Production, separation, partial purification and characterization of Antimicrobial compounds from Bacillus spp. and Actinomycetes
  4. Production and purification of organic acids using microorganisms
  5. Field Visit to Industries

 

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

 

Contents

1.      Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing: Disc Diffusion methods

2.      Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial compounds by tube and agar diffusion methods; E test

3.      Monitoring of sterilization

4.      Sterility and quality control of pharmaceutical products

5.      Testing of efficacy of disinfectants

6.      Microbial limit test of raw materials used in pharmaceutical industries

7.      Microbial monitoring of environment of pharmaceutical industries

Water quality testing

Air quality evaluation

8.      Demonstration of WHO-GMP standards

9.      Bacterial endotoxin testing- LAL test

 

Systematic and Diagnostic Bacteriology-2

 

Contents

1        Isolation and identification of medically important anaerobic bacteria by conventional methods

2        Microscopic and culture methods for diagnosis of  Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • AFB staining: Ziehl-Neelsen, Rhodamine Auramine stain, etc
  • AFB culture: LJ media, Middle Brook, etc
  • Molecular diagnosis of Mycobacterium

3        Antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria and Mycobacterium

4        Laboratory diagnosis of gas gangrene

5        Laboratory diagnosis of meningitis

6        Laboratory diagnosis of ocular infections

7        Laboratory diagnosis of ear infections

8        Laboratory diagnosis of oral/dental infections

9        Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis

 

MB 612 Practical based on (MB 608 + MB 609+MB 610)

 

Course Title: Practical based on (MB 608 + MB 609 + MB 610)                  Full Marks: 75Course No: MB 612                                                                                                Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                Semester: III

 

Systematic and Diagnostic Virology-2

 

Contents

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection using  rapid, ELISA and molecular  methods
  2. Laboratory diagnosis of HBV infection  using  rapid  and ELISA methods
  3. Laboratory diagnosis of HCV using  rapid  and ELISA methods
  4. Laboratory diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus infection
  5. Laboratory diagnosis of Dengue  virus infection using, rapid, ELISA and molecular methods
  6. Laboratory diagnosis of Measles and Rubella viruses using ELISA methods

                                                                                                                    

Systematic and Diagnostic Parasitology/Mycology-2

 

Contents

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of blood, tissue, body fluid parasites
  2. Culture and enumeration of intestinal and blood parasites for research purpose
  3. Fixation of slides containing parasitic specimens for referral
  4. Culture and identification of fungal agents of medical importance
  5. Fixation of slides containing fungal elements for referral
  6. Packaging of parasitic and fungal specimens for Transportation following IATA regulation for referral
  7. Molecular techniques in diagnosis of parasitic and fungal infections
  8. Modern Rapid and ELISA based techniques used in the diagnosis of parasitic and fungal infections

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medical Microbiology

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75(45+30)

MB 655

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 656

Hospital Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 657

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

 

 

 


MB 651 Research Methods and Biostatistics

 

Course Title: Research Methods and Biostatistics                                         Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 651                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have knowledge on

  1.  Research methods in Microbiology
  2. Application of biostatistical methods in microbiological research.

 

Course Contents

 

Research Methods

 

Research Methods                                                                                                     15 hrs

Introduction and objectives of research, Criteria of good research question, Research process, Priority areas, Objectives/ Hypothesis setting, Literature review, Critical appraisal, Meta analysis, Ethical issues in research: Salient point of the international guidelines, General ethical principles, Informed consent                                                                           

Scientific Writing                                                                                                      5 hrs

Paper writing, Proposal writing, Thesis/report writing (Seminar presentations)                                                                                                                    

Biostatistics

 

Sampling, Data Collection And Frequency Distribution                                       5 hrs

Sample and Sampling, Sampling design and Sample selection, Sample size and calculation, Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, Frequency distribution                                                                                                                                               

Data Analysis And Computer Application                                                             20 hrs

Quantitative data analysis (descriptive analysis, inferential analysis- chi square, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, 95% CI, Standard error, Odds ratio, p-value, Regression analysis), Data entry and data analysis using computer software (SPSS, STATA, SAS, Epi Info etc.)                                                                                                                                  

References

1. Daniel WW (2004), Biostatistics: A foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, 8th Edition,Wiley

2. Mahajan BK (2007), Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers, Jaypee Brothers   Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd, India

 

 

 

 

MB 657 Dissertation

 

Course Title: Dissertation                                                                               Full Marks: 100

Course No.: MB 657                                                                                       Pass Marks: 50

Nature of course: Laboratory based Research Project (4 credits)                 Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of dissertation the students will

  1. Have knowledge and skills to conduct original scientific research
  2. Have deep understanding of research methods  related to Microbiology
  3. Be able to design an experiment, generate, analyze scientific data and conclude important findings
  4. Develop scientific writing and presentation skills

 

Course Description

 

Individual students will be assigned relevant research topics related to their field of study by concerned central department/campus/college. Students will perform required field work and laboratory experiments within this semester. The research will be supervised by faculty member(s) of microbiology of concerned central department/campus/college. Students should submit research proposal on assigned topic within first week of this semester and must be approved by the institutional review board. After completion of research work, the student should write the dissertation/thesis in standard format on the basis of data/findings generated during the research works. The student will submit required number of copies of their dissertation to concerned department/campus/college for evaluation. The submitted dissertation will be approved by head of the central department/campus chief/coordinator. On the recommendation of head of department/campus chief/coordinator, the Institute of Science and Technology will appoint a related expert as an external examiner from the panel of approved examiners to evaluate the submitted dissertation. On the recommendation of external examiner, viva-voce open defence will be organized for evaluation of dissertation by concerned department/campus/college. The final evaluation of dissertation will be made by a panel of external and internal examiners, head of the department and supervisor(s). Students will be encouraged to publish the dissertation findings in peer reviewed microbiology journals in the form of original research article.

    

 

 

 

 


Discipline III: Food and Industrial Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology and Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 564

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 565

General Food Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 566

Foodborne Pathogens and Toxicology 

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 567

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 564)

P

3

75

MB 568

Practical on (MB 565 + MB 566)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester III

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 613

Food Fermentation Technology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 614

Food Biotechnology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 615

Food Preservation and Processing

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 616

Total Quality Management and Quality Assurance

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 617

Practical on (MB 613 + MB 614)

P

3

75

MB 618

Practical on (MB 615 + MB 616)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 658

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 659

Industry based Internship

P

8

200

MB 660

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food and Industrial Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology and Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 564

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 565

General Food Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 566

Foodborne Pathogens and Toxicology 

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 567

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 564)

P

3

75

MB 568

Practical on (MB 565 + MB 566)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


MB 563 Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology

 

Course Title: Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology                    Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 563                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5 Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                                    Semester: II                               

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Scope and application of Microbial Biotechnology
  2. Production, purification, and product recovery of industrial products of microbial origin

 

Course Contents

 

Gene Transfer Techniques                                                                                      8 hrs

Vector, Gene transfer (based on Ti and Ri Plasmid, intermediate and helper plasmid, binary vector, virus as vector), Gene transfer techniques using Agrobacterium, Animal cell culture technology, Plant cell and tissue culture technology                                                                                                                                                     

Production, Purifications And Product Recovery Of Physiologically Active Substances By Fermentation                                                                                                            12 hrs

Antibiotics (Penicillin, Streptomycin, Polypeptide antibiotics), Enzyme inhibitors, Beta carotene, Riboflavin and vitamin B12, Amino acids (Glutamic acid, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Tryptophan), Nucleic acids, Organic acids (Citric acid, Acetic acid, Lactic acid, Kojic acid), Enzymes (Amylase, Protease, Chitinase, Pectinase), Alcoholic beverages (Wine, Beer, Distilled liquor), Fermented foods (Kinema, Soya sauce, NATO, Kimchi), Single cell protein

                                                                                                                                                 

Fermentation Technology                                                                                        12 hrs                         

Fermentation Processes and culture improvement: Introduction to industrial fermentation and bioprocess technology, Microorganisms of industrial importance, Management of culture collection; Bioengineering and Bioreactor Design: Basic concepts in Bioengineering: Dimensions and units, Equilibrium and rate, Coefficients for mass and heat transfer, Volumetric coefficient and mass balance,  Bioreactor design, Batch, Fed-batch, Continuous culture, Solid state, Submerged fermentation, Sterilization for fermentation                                      

 

Production And Product Recovery Of                                                                   4 hrs  

Human growth hormones, Interferon, Insulin                   

 

Types, Applications And Production Process Of                                                   4 hrs

Microbial bio-fertilizers

 

Types, Applications And Production Procedures Of                                            5 hrs

Bacterial, Fungal, Viral biopesticides, Bioherbicides                                                                        

 

 

References

  1. Smith JE (2003), Biotechnology, 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press
  2. Crueger W and Crueger A (1990), Biotechnology: A textbook of Industrial Microbiology, 2nd Edition, T. D. Brock's Editor. Sunderland Mass Sinauer Associates
  3. Cassida LE Jr (1996), Industrial Microbiology, New Age Int. Publishers
  4. Reed G (Ed) (1981), Prescott and Dunn's Industrial Microbiology, 4th Edition, Chapman and Hall
  5. Stanbury JP and Whitaker A (1981), Principles of Fermentation Technology, Perganon Press, Oxford
  6. Biotol (1992), Bioreactor Design and Product Yield , Elsevier India Private Limited, New Delhi


MB 564 Pharmaceutical Microbiology

 

Course Title: Pharmaceutical Microbiology                                                    Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 564                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: II                               

Objective

Upon the completion of the course students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Applications of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and quality control systems applied in pharmaceutical industry

 

Course Contents

 

Antibiotics                                                                                                                  12 hrs

Sources, types, mode of action and therapeutic uses of antibiotics, Selection criteria of antibiotics, Mode of action and therapeutic uses of antiviral drugs, Antimicrobials in combination

                                                                                                                                               

Development Of Drug Resistance In Bacteria                                                        6 hrs

Types and mechanisms of resistance                                                                                     

 

Quality Evaluation Of Pharmaceutical Products                                                   6 hrs

Pharmacopeia, Sources of impurities and their quality control, Bioassays, Chemical assays and immunoassay of antibiotics                                                                                           

 

Microbial Spoilage And Preservation Of Pharmaceutical Products                    7 hrs

Types of spoilage, Factors affecting microbial spoilage, Preservation of pharmaceutical products, Quality assurance and management                                                                                                    

 

Sterilization Control And Sterility Testing Of Pharmaceutical Products            7 hrs

Physical, chemical and biological indicators of sterilization, Principles and methods of sterility testing                                                                                                             

 

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics                                                            7 hrs

Drug absorption (route of drug administration), Drug distribution, Drug metabolism, Drug excretion (elimination), Drug time course, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Drug-receptor interaction, Receptor structure, Drug receptor specificity, Dose-response relationships (Potency, efficacy), Dose-response functions (ED50, LD 50, therapeutic index)

                                                                                                                       

References

  1. Denyer SP, Hodges NA and Gorman SP (Eds) (2004), Hugo and Russell’s Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 7th Edition, Blackwell Science Ltd
    1. I.P./U.S.P./B.P.

 

 


MB 565 General Food Microbiology

 

Course Title: General Food Microbiology                                                      Full Marks: 75

Course No.:  MB 565                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students will be able to understand

  1. Fundamental facts and principles of Microbiology dealing with foods
  2. Application of knowledge of food Microbiology for assuring safe food supplies

 

Course Contents

 

Microorganisms Associated With Food                                                                  5 hrs

Types of microorganisms in food, sources and survival, Growth of microorganisms and factors affecting growth                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                       

Food Contamination And Food Spoilage                                                               15 hrs

Contamination and spoilage of sugars and sugar products, Fish and fish products, Jam, Jellies, Marmalades, Dehydrated foods, Spices and other condiments, Canned foods, Milk and milk products, Meat and meat products, Poultry products, Beverages, Bakery products, Fruit and vegetables, Cereals and grains

 

Predictive Food Microbiology                                                                                   5 hrs

Mathematical model for predicting probability of food pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogens

 

Analytical Food Microbiology                                                                                  20 hrs

Number of microorganisms in foods, sampling, total cell counts, Membrane filter method, Most probable number (MPN), Estimation of microorganisms based on metabolism: Reductase test, Chemical indicators of decomposition ATP test, Physical test, Measurement of gas production, Use of instruments, Microbiological techniques for examination of foods, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Environmental impact assessment (EIA), Chromatographic determinations: Paper, TLC, GLC and HPLC, Immunological methods, DNA/RNA methodology

                                                                                                                                   

References

  1. Frazier WC and WesthoffDC (1986), Food Microbiology, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi
  2. Jay JH (1987), Modern Food Microbiology, 3rd edition CBS. Pub and Distributors, Delhi
  3. Adams MR and MossMO (1995), Food Microbiology, Royal Society of Chemistry Publication, Cambridge
  4. Banwart GJ (1989), Basic Food Microbiology, CBS Pub and distributors, Delhi
  5. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (2001), FDA, USA
  6. ICMSF (1980), Microbial Ecology of Foods Vol. 1 and 2, Academic Press,  New York
  7. Robinson RK (1985), Dairy Microbiology Vol. 1 and 2, Applied Science Publishers, London, New York

 

 


MB566 Foodborne Pathogens and Toxicology

 

Course Title: Foodborne Pathogens and Toxicology                                      Full Marks: 75

Course No.:  MB 566                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the students will be able to understand:

  1. Principle of food poisoning and diseases caused by microbial infection and intoxication
  2. The mechanism and control measures food poisoning and contaminating microbes

Course Contents

 

Food Poisoning And Disease                                                                                    25 hrs

Food-borne infections and intoxication, Microbiology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Laboratory diagnosis, Prevention and control of food poisoning by microorganisms, Bacterial food poisoning: Staphylococcus, Listeria, Clostridium, Shigella, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli,  Vibrio, Yersinia enterocolitica, Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins, Foodborne viruses, Toxigenic algae, Rickettsea, Parasites, Spongiform encephalopathies and seafood toxicants                                                

                                                                              

Investigation Of Food Borne Disease Outbreak                                                     7 hrs

Epidemiology, Outbreaks of food poisoning, Other food borne diseases

 

Food Toxicology                                                                                                        8 hrs

Science, Principles and methodology of toxicology, Generation, Interpretation and application of toxicological data                                                                                                                                        

 

Food Adulteration                                                                                                     5 hrs                                                                                                                           

Detection of possible adulterants in food supply chain, Test kits and application in daily monitoring of food quality and safety                                                                                 

 

References

  1. Helferich W and  Winter  CK (2001), Food Toxicology, CRC Press, USA
  2. Blackburn CW and Peter J (2005), Mcclure, Foodborne Pathogens, CRC Press, New York
  3. WHO/IPCS (2001), Safety evaluation of certain mycotoxins in foods
  4. 4.      WHO/IPCS (2004), Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants
  5. Betty CH (1982), Food Microbiology Related to Food-Borne Diseases, Arnold Heinemann Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi
  6. Betty CH and Diane R (1987), Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene, Edward Arnold, London
  7. WHO/FAO (2004), Technical Report Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogens in ready to eat foods
  8. 8.      WHO/ IPCS (1990), Principles for the Toxicological Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Food
  9.  WHO/IPCS (1991), Toxicological Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues on food

 

 


MB 567 Food Microbiology Practical

 

Course Title: Practical Course on (MB 563 + MB 564)                                 Full Marks: 75

Course No.:  MB 567                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                            Semester: II

 

Microbial Biotechnology and Industrial Microbiology

 

Contents

  1. Student model fermenter design
  2. Isolation and identification of Rhizobium spp.
  3. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus thuriengiensis and purification of crystal protein.
  4. Production, purification and characterization of industrially important enzymes of microbial origin

 

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

 

Contents

1.      Antibiotic susceptibility testing: Disc diffusion methods

2.      Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial compounds by tube and agar diffusion methods: E test

3.      Monitoring of sterilization

4.      Sterility and quality control of pharmaceutical products

5.      Testing of efficacy of disinfectants

6.      Microbial limit test of raw materials used in pharmaceutical industries

7.      Microbial monitoring of environment of pharmaceutical industries

  • Water quality testing
  • Air quality evaluation

8.      Demonstration of WHO-GMP standards

9.      Bacterial endotoxin testing: LAL test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MB 568 Food Microbiology Practical

 

Course Title: Practical Course on (MB 563 + MB 564)                                 Full Marks: 75

Course No.:  MB 568                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                            Semester: II

 

Objectives

After the completion of the course, the students will have

  1. Advanced skills on applications of qualitative and quantitative techniques related to food Microbiology

 

Contents

  1. Standard plate count, coliform count in various food samples
  2. Determination of shelf-life of packaged food stuffs
  3. Evaluation of efficacy of canning and microbiological analysis of canned foods
  4. Evaluation of efficacy of food preservation: Jam jellies and marmalade, fruit juice, vegetable, juice, tomato paste
  5. Milk pasteurization evaluation
  6. Crude enzyme production and determination of enzyme activity
  7. Citric acid, lactic acid production at laboratory scale
  8. Wine, Beer, Brandy, Jand, Chhyang  production and quality evaluation at laboratory scale
  9. Traditional fermented food preparation and their quality assessment
  10. Isolation, screening and identification of baker's yeast

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food and Industrial Microbiology

 

Semester III

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 613

Food Fermentation Technology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 614

Food Biotechnology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 615

Food Preservation and Processing

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 616

Total Quality Management and Quality Assurance

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 617

Practical on (MB 613 + MB 614)

P

3

75

MB 618

Practical on (MB 615 + MB 616)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


MB 613 Food Fermentation Technology

 

Course Title: Food Fermentation Technology                                                Full Marks:75

Course No.: MB613                                                                                        Pass Marks:37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objective

After studying this course, the students will be able to

  1. Understand the role, function, and implication of microorganisms in the bio-processing, preservation, safety and nutritional enrichment of food resources

 

Course Contents

 

Microbiology Of Fermented Foods                                                                         25 hrs

Principles of fermentation, Fermentative pathways, Fermentation process, Production of cultures for food fermentation: General principles of culture maintenance and preparation, Bacterial cultures, Yeast cultures, Molds cultures: Indigenous food fermentation: Fermented vegetables, Coffee, Cocoa, Yeast extracts, Mizo, Chhurpi, Yoghurt, Cheese, Soyabean products: Soya sauce, Tempe, Tofu, Kinema, Natto                        

 

Food And Enzymes From Microorganisms                                                            10 hrs

Microorganisms as food: Single cell protein (SCP), Fats from microorganisms, Production of enzymes     

                                                                                                       

Isolation And Improvement Of Industrial Microorganisms                                 10 hrs

Bacteria Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Acetic acid bacteria, Yeast: Saccharaomyces cereviseae (in Murcha), Microbial starters for indigenous food fermentations: Ragge, Murcha, Luckpang, Bubod, and Koji, Molds: Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus, Lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms

                                                                                                                                               

References

  1. Banwart GJ (1987), Basic food Microbiology, 1st Edition, SK Jain for CBS Publisher and  distributors, Delhi
  2. Bailey JE and Ollis  DF (1986), Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals (2nd edition) McGraw-Hill, New York
  3. Carl SP (1979), Microbiology of Food Fermentations, AVI Publishing  Company
  4.  Rose AH (1982), Fermented Foods, Academic Press
  5. Ayers JC, Mundt JO and Sandine WE (1980), Microbiology of Foods, W. H Freeman and Company
  6. Larry RB (1987), Food and Beverage Mycology, AVI Book
  7. Varnam AH and Sutherland JP (2009), Beverages: Technology, Chemistry and Microbiology, Springer (India) Private Limited, New Delhi

                                                             


MB 614 Food Biotechnology

 

Course Title: Food Biotechnology                                                                  Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 614                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objective

After studying this course, the students will be able to

  1. Use application of biotechnological techniques and tools for improvement of biotechnological food processes

 

Course Contents

 

History Of Food Biotechnology                                                                               25 hrs

Tools of food biotechnology, Genetic engineering, DNA probe, Plant tissue culture; Application of biotechnology for improvement of food products: Production and improvement of enzymes, Improvement of traditional fermented Foods: Microbial synthesis of food, Biotechnology in food production and processing: Application of genetics to food production, Impact of biotechnology on the food industries, Food and nutrition, Nutritional quality of foods, Functional foods and neutraceuticals, Metabolic engineering and microbial proteomics                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

Methods And Processes In Biotechnology                                                              20 hrs

Methods and application of molecular cloning, Analytical methods in structure elaboration of fermented products: Low molecular weight compounds, Fermentation systems and processes, Bioprocess control rapid methods for detection of contaminating organisms/chemicals in food, Environmental impact assay (EIA), Chromatography, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Immunodiffusion, Immunofluorescence                 

                                                                                                                                                     

References

  1. Shetty K, Paliyath G, Podetto A and Levin RE (2006), Food Biotechnology, Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, USA
  2. Okafor N (2007), Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Science Publisher, USA
  3. Bailey JE and Ollis  DF (1986), Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals (2nd edition) McGraw-Hill, New York
  4. Shang-Tian Y (2007), Bioprocessing for value added Products from Renewable Resources, Elsevier International, Netherlands
  5. Biolecki S (2000), Food  Biotechnology, Elsevier Science
  6. Byong HL (1996), Fundamentals of  Food Biotechnology, John Wiley and Sons
  7. El-Mansi EMT, Bryce CFA, Demain AL and AllmanAR (2009), Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, CRC Boca Raton
  8. Pandey A (2005), Concise Encyclopedia of Bioresource Technology, Viva Books Private Limited, New Delhi                                

 

 


MB 615 Food Preservation and Processing

 

Course Title: Food Preservation and Processing                                            Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 615                                                                                       Pass Marks:37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: III

 

Objectives

After studying this course the students will be able to

  1. Perform experiments dealing with preservation, processing and quality aspects of foods

 

Course Contents

 

Principles Of Food Preservation                                                                              15 hrs

Control of microorganisms: Introduction, Control of microorganisms by retarding growth: Low temperature storage, Drying, Chemicals added to food, Control of microorganisms by destruction, Gas treatments, Heat treatments, Control of microorganisms by irradiation, Recent developments in food preservation technology, High pressure, Inactivation by High Intensity Pulsed Electric Field (HIPEF), Microwave, Ohmic heating, Organic food processing                                                                                                        

 

Methods Of Preservation Of Food And Fruit Products                                        20 hrs

Cereal grains and meals, Flour, Bread, Cakes and other bakery products, Biscuits, Crackers, Macaroni, Noodles, Pasta, Sucrose, Maple sap and syrup, Honey, Candy, Vegetable and egg products, Poultry and poultry products, Milk and milk products, Meat  and meat products, Fruit based products (jam, jellies, sauce, juices, marmalade, tomato paste)                                                                                                                         

Food Packaging                                                                                                         10 hrs

Principle of food packaging, Food packing materials chemical and physical properties, Interaction between  food and the packaging materials, Evaluation of packaging materials and system: Selection of packing materials including edible packaging materials, Modified atmospheric and flexible packaging materials, Shelf life evaluation of packaging products                                                                                          

                                                                                                           

References

  1. Potter NP (1987), Food Science, CBS Pub, India
  2. Fellows PJ (1990), Food Processing technology – Principles and Practices, Ellice Harwood Ltd , UK
  3. Rahman MS (1999),  Handbook of Food Preservation, Marcel Dekker, Inc, NY
  4. Cruess  WV (1966), Commercial Fruit and Vegetable Products, Mc-Graw Hill Book Company
  5. Prescott CS and  Proctor EB (1937), Food Technology, Mc-Graw Hill Book company
  6. Desrosier EN  (1963),  The Technology of Food Preservation, AVI Publishing Company , New York
  7. Bowers J (1992),  Food Theory and Applications, Maxwell Macmillan International , New York

 


MB 616 Total Quality Management and Quality Assurance

 

Course Title: Total Quality Management and Quality Assurance                  Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 616                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: III

 

Objective

After studying this course, the students will be able to

  1. Understand quality system certification and quality assurance technique  for improvement of quality and safety of food products

 

Course Contents

 

Quality Systems, Regulations And Certification                                                    15 hrs

Food regulation and standard in prospective of codex in Nepalese context enforcement and control agencies (FDA), Food laws, Problems of regulations, Food standards, Microbiological criteria for foods, Quality control/ quality assurance and International Food Trade, Sanitary Phytosanitary (SPS), Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), ISO-9000 Standards: ISO 9001:2008, ISO 9004, ISO 22000:2005, ISO 17025, ISO 14000 and developing ISO 9001 modules for food enterprises.

                                                                                                                                   

Quality Assurance And Food Sanitation And Hygiene                                         15 hrs

Principle of food quality control, Microbiology in food plant sanitation: Bacteriology of water, Sewage and waste treatment and disposal, Microbial quality of food products, Good Agriculture Practices (GAP), Good Hygienic Practice (GHP), Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) and HACCP modules for perishable foods, Risk analysis: Risk assessment, Risk management and risk communication, Health of employees, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), Principle of laboratory accreditation, Principle of reference material, Principle of quality assurance, Principle of quality auditing, Conventional systems                                                                                                

 

Total Quality Management (TQM) Principles                                                        5 hrs

Evolution of TQM, TQM Models, Customer satisfaction, Customer perception of quality, Customer complaints, Service quality, Customer retention, Employee involvement, Motivation, Empowerment, Teams, Recognition and reward, Continuous process improvement, PDCA cycle                                                           

Statistical Process Control (SPC)                                                                             10 hrs

Control chart  and importance, Procedures for creating X Bar and R charts, Procedures for constructing attribute charts, Chart patterns using control chart as quality management tool, Seven tools of quality, Pareto diagram, Scatter diagram, Ishikawa diagram, Implementation of quality control program, Samples: Sampling plans, Samples from different distribution, Sample size, Types of samples, Sampling plans, Types of inspection                                                                                                                      

 

                                                                                                                       

 

References

  1. Lightfoot NF and Maier EA (1999), Microbiological Analysis of Food and Water: Guidelines for Quality Assurance, Elsevier Science
  2. Marriott NG and Gravani RB (2006), Principles of Food Sanitation, 5th edition, Food Science Text Series, Springer Link
  3. McSwane D, Rue NR and Linton R (2004), Essentials of Food Safety and Sanitation, 4th edition, Prentice Hall
  4. Roberts D and Greenwood M (2002), Practical Food Microbiology, Wiley-Blackwell
  5. Inteeaz A (2004), Food Quality Assurance (Principles and Practices), CRC Press
  6. Anderes JV (2004), Quality Assurance for the Food Industry (A Practical Approach), CRC Press


MB 617 Food Microbiology Practical

 

Course Title: Practical Course on (MB 613+MB 614)                                   Full Marks: 75

Course No.:  MB 617                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                            Semester: III

 

Objective

After the completion of the course, the students will have

  1. Advanced skills on applications of food biotechnology

 

Food Fermentation Technology

 

Contents

  1. Production of wine and sake
  2. Production, optimization and purification of local alcoholic beverages
  3. Distillation of alcoholic beverages and estimation of alcohol percentage
  4. Determination of methanol in distilled liquors
  5. Production, separation, partial purification and characterization of antimicrobial compounds from Bacillus spp. and Actinomycetes
  1. Production and purification of organic acids using microorganisms
  2. Field visit to industries

 

 

Food Biotechnology

 

Contents

1. Enzyme production by solid state fermentation

2. Isolation of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli

3. Purification of plasmid DNA

4. Functional food for diabetes and cardiovascular disease

5. PCR technique for genetic characterization of industrial microbes

6. Production of vitamin B12 by living bacterial cells immobilized in alginate gels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MB 618 Food Microbiology Practical

 

Course Title: Practical Course on (MB 615 + MB 616)                                 Full Marks: 75

Course No.:  MB 618                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Practical (3 credits)                                                            Semester: III

 

Contents                                                                                                                    

  1. Production of sauerkraut, yoghurt and isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria
  2. Water quality analysis
  3. Determination of Thermal Death Point (TDP) and Thermal Death Time (TDT) of microorganisms
  4. Determination of fat percentage, total solids, protein, water in milk and milk products
  5. Determination of CCP in beverages processing plant
  6. Design HACCP module for perishable foods processing
  7. Determination of  MRL  of pesticide residue in commercial vegetable farm
  8. Determination of  NOAEL of veterinary drug residues in milk supply chain
  9. Development of  HACCP and ISO 22000  comparative module for ice cream, chocolate, and fruit juice plant
  10. Determination of  growth curve of bacteria and fungi


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food and Industrial Microbiology

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 658

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 659

Industry based Internship

P

8

200

MB 660

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MB 651 Research Methods and Biostatistics

 

Course Title: Research Methods and Biostatistics                                         Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 651                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have knowledge on

  1. Research methods in Microbiology
  2. Application of biostatistical methods in microbiological research.

 

Course Contents

 

Research Methods

 

Research Methods                                                                                                     15 hrs

Introduction and objectives of research, Criteria of good research question, Research process, Priority areas, Objectives/ Hypothesis setting, Literature review, Critical appraisal, Meta analysis, Ethical issues in research: Salient point of the international guidelines, General ethical principles, Informed consent                                                                           

Scientific Writing                                                                                                      5 hrs

Paper writing, Proposal writing, Thesis/report writing (Seminar presentations)                                                                                                                    

Biostatistics

 

Sampling, Data Collection And Frequency Distribution                                       5 hrs

Sample and Sampling, Sampling design and Sample selection, Sample size and calculation, Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, Frequency distribution                                                                                                                                               

Data Analysis And Computer Application                                                             20 hrs

Quantitative data analysis (descriptive analysis, inferential analysis- chi square, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, 95% CI, Standard error, Odds ratio, p-value, Regression analysis), Data entry and data analysis using computer software (SPSS, STATA, SAS, Epi Info etc.)                                                                                                                                  

References

  1. Daniel WW (2004), Biostatistics: A foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, 8th Edition,Wiley
  2. Mahajan BK (2007), Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd, India

 

 

 

 

MB 660 Dissertation

 

Course Title: Dissertation                                                                               Full Marks: 100

Course No.: MB 660                                                                                      Pass Marks: 50

Nature of course: Laboratory based Research Project (4 credits)                  Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the dissertation the students will

  1. Have the knowledge and skills to conduct original scientific research
  2. Have a deep understanding of research methods  related to Food Microbiology
  3. Be able to design an experiment, generate, analyze scientific data and conclude important findings
  4. Develop scientific writing and presentation skills

 

Course Description

 

Individual students will be assigned relevant research topics related to their field of study by concerned central department/campus/college. Students will perform required field work and laboratory experiments within this semester. The research will be supervised by faculty member(s) of microbiology of concerned central department/campus/college. Students should submit research proposal on assigned topic within first week of this semester and must be approved by the institutional review board. After completion of research work, the student should write the dissertation/thesis in standard format on the basis of data/findings generated during the research works. The student will submit required number of copies of their dissertation to concerned department/campus/college for evaluation. The submitted dissertation will be approved by head of the central department/campus chief/coordinator. On the recommendation of head of department/campus chief/coordinator, the Institute of Science and Technology will appoint a related expert as an external examiner from the panel of approved examiners to evaluate the submitted dissertation. On the recommendation of external examiner, viva-voce open defence will be organized for evaluation of dissertation by concerned department/campus/college. The final evaluation of dissertation will be made by a panel of external and internal examiners, head of the department and supervisor(s). Students will be encouraged to publish the dissertation findings in peer reviewed microbiology journals in the form of original research article.

    

 

 

 


Discipline IV: Agriculture Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 569

Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 570

Microbial Metabolism in Soil

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 571

Soil Fertilizers

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 572

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 569)

P

3

75

MB 573

Practical on (MB 570 + MB 571)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester III

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 619

Biological Control

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 620

Insect Microbial Pathology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 621

Agricultural Pest Management

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 622

Applied Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 623

Practical on (MB 619 + MB 620)

P

3

75

MB 624

Practical on (MB 621 + MB 622)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 661

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 662

Agriculture Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 663

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agriculture Microbiology

 

Semester II

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 563

Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 569

Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 570

Microbial Metabolism in Soil

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 571

Soil Fertilizers

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 572

Practical on (MB 563 + MB 569)

P

3

75

MB 573

Practical on (MB 570 + MB 571)

P

3

75

Total

18

450

 

MB 563 Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology

 

Course Title: Microbial Biotechnology/Industrial Microbiology                    Full Marks:75

Course No.: MB 563                                                                                      Pass Marks:37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                               Semester: II                               

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course,  students will have advanced knowledge on

  1. Scope and application of Microbial Biotechnology
  2. Production, purification, and product recovery of industrial products of microbial origin

 

Course Contents

 

Gene Transfer Techniques                                                                                      8 hrs

Vector, Gene transfer (based on Ti and Ri Plasmid, intermediate and helper plasmid, binary vector, virus as vector), Gene transfer techniques using Agrobacterium, Animal cell culture technology, Plant cell and tissue culture technology                                                                                                                                                     

Production, Purifications And Product Recovery Of Physiologically Active Substances By Fermentation                                                                                                            12 hrs

Antibiotics (Penicillin, Streptomycin, Polypeptide antibiotics), Enzyme inhibitors, Beta carotene, Riboflavin and vitamin B12, Amino acids (Glutamic acid, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Tryptophan), Nucleic acids, Organic acids (Citric acid, Acetic acid, Lactic acid, Kojic acid), Enzymes (Amylase, Protease, Chitinase, Pectinase), Alcoholic beverages (Wine, Beer, Distilled liquor), Fermented foods (Kinema, Soya sauce, NATO, Kimchi), Single cell protein

                                                                                                                                                 

Fermentation Technology                                                                                        12 hrs                         

Fermentation Processes and culture improvement: Introduction to industrial fermentation and bioprocess technology, Microorganisms of industrial importance, Management of culture collection; Bioengineering and Bioreactor Design: Basic concepts in Bioengineering: Dimensions and units, Equilibrium and rate, Coefficients for mass and heat transfer, Volumetric coefficient and mass balance,  Bioreactor design, Batch, Fed-batch, Continuous culture, Solid state, Submerged fermentation, Sterilization for fermentation                                      

 

Production And Product Recovery Of                                                                   4 hrs  

Human growth hormones, Interferon, Insulin                   

 

Types, Applications And Production Process Of                                                   4 hrs

Microbial bio-fertilizers

 

Types, Applications And Production Procedures Of                                           5 hrs

Bacterial, Fungal, Viral biopesticides, Bioherbicides                                                                        

                                               

References

  1. Smith JE (2003), Biotechnology, 3rd Edition, CambridgeUniversity Press
  2. Crueger W and Crueger A (1990), Biotechnology: A textbook of Industrial Microbiology, 2nd Edition, T. D. Brock's Editor. Sunderland Mass Sinauer Associates
  3. Cassida LE Jr (1996), Industrial Microbiology, New Age Int. Publishers
  4. Reed G (Ed) (1981), Prescott and Dunn's Industrial Microbiology, 4th Edition, Chapman and Hall
  5. Stanbury JP and Whitaker A (1981), Principles of Fermentation Technology, Perganon Press, Oxford
  6. Biotol (1992), Bioreactor Design and Product Yield , Elsevier India Private Limited, New Delhi


MB 569 Soil Microbiology           

 

Course Title: Soil Microbiology                                                                     Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 569                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to

  1. Understand the formation of soil
  2. Have basic knowledge about the soil plant microbes inter-relationship
  3. Have knowledge about the mineral transformation and residual pesticide in soil

 

Course Contents

 

Soil Formation, Properties Of Soil                                                                           15 hrs

Elements of soil formation and laterization, Pseudo-lization, Texture and profile, Components of soil and their importance for plant and microbial growth (Mineral matter, Organic matter, Soil moisture, Soil atmosphere, O/R potential)

 

Soil Hydrology                                                                                                           5 hrs

Form of water in soil, Physiochemical and biological properties of water in soil  

 

Decomposition Of Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, Pectin And Lignin                          10 hrs

Decomposition of cellulose into simpler compound into cellobiose, Pectin into simpler molecules, Lignin into simpler molecules (humus and humic acid)

 

Biogeochemical Cycles                                                                                              10 hrs

Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur cycle  for soil mineralization and plant growth

 

Soil Plant Microbes Interrelationship                                                                      5 hrs                                                                                   

Microbes inhabiting in plants  (Phylosphere, Rhizosphere, Rhizoplane) 

 

References                                     

  1. Rangaswami G and Bagyaraj  DJ (2004), Agricultural Microbiology, Prentice Hall Private Ltd
  2. Alexander M (1961), An Introduction to Soil Microbiology, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
  3. BradyNC and Weil RM (1969), Study Guide for Nature and Properties of Soil, 9780135014332
  4. Paul H (Ed) (2006), Soil Microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry, Lohinis and Fred Publications
  5. Atlas RM (1998), Microbial Ecology, Fundamental and Application, Fourth Edition, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc
  6. Tortora GJ, Funke BR and Case CL (2010), Microbiology: An Introduction, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc

 

MB 570 Microbial Metabolism in Soil

 

Course Title: Microbial Metabolism in Soil                                                   Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 570                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the student will be able to

  1. Understand physiology of soil borne and  pathogenic  microorganisms
  2. Understand contributing  factors affecting  growth of  microbes in soil

 

Course Contents

                                                                                                   

Degradation Of Pesticides, Insecticide, Herbicide And Fungicide In Soil            15 hrs                                                                      

Process of degradation of pesticides, Insecticide, Herbicide and fungicide in soil and their effect on soil microbes, like Rhizobium and other in biogeochemical cycle  

Degradation of DDT, Aldrin, Heptachlor, Lindane, Aliphatic acids, Phenylcarbamates, Phenylureas, Thiocarbamates, PCNB, Chloroneb, Murcurial fungicides

Degradation pathways, Detoxication,  Degradation  and  conjugation  formation  with   the  steps (defusing,  activation,  Detoxification,  Addition reaction and  degradation reaction  and  transformation of 2-4-D)

 

Physiology And Biochemistry Of Pathogenic And Soil Borne Microbes             10 hrs 

Enzymes, nutrition, growth and multiplication of microbes, Pectinolytic, Lignolytic, Lipolytic, Cellulolytic  enzymes  of  soil  microbes, Nutrition  and  growth of  soil microbes

 

Factors Affecting Growth And Population Of Microbes                                      10 hrs

Factors  affecting  growth  of  soil  microbes in  raining, Drought, Arid  condition. Change of microbial population, Dominance in microbial flora according to climatic condition

 

Synthesis Of Cell Constituents, Secondary Metabolites Of Microbes                  10 hrs

Carbohydrate, Protein and lipid synthesis, Synthesis of gibberellins, Toxins: Mycotoxins, Food  toxins, Antibiotics 

 

References

  1. Rangaswami G and Bagyaraj  DJ (2004), Agricultural Microbiology, Prentice Hall Private Ltd
  2. Alexander M (1961), An Introduction to Soil Microbiology, Wiley Eastern Ltd
  3. Tisdale SL, Nelson WL and Beaton JD (1985), Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, Macmillan Technology and Engineering
  4. Steward FC (1963), Inorganic Nutrients of Plants, Elsevier Publications
  5. Atlas RM (1998), Microbial Ecology, Fundamental and Application, 4th Edition, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc
  6. Tortora GJ, Funke BR and Case CL (2010), Microbiology: An Introduction, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc

MB 571 Soil Fertilizers

 

Course Title: Soil Fertilizers                                                                            Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 571                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: II

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the student will be able to

  1. Understand the effect and utilize the commercial  inorganic, organic fertilizer and  biofertilizer
  2. Use organic green manuring for better yield of crop

 

Course Contents

 

Chemical  Fertilizers                                                                                                 5 hrs

Commercial organic  and  inorganic  fertilizers, Commercial  fertilizers    as  supplement  of  nitrate, Phosphate  and  potassium,    Impact  of   over   use, Indiscriminate  use on  crop  plants 

 

Biofertilizers                                                                                                              5 hrs

Introduction, Types of  biofertilizers and their role in crop yield

 

Azotobacter As Fertilizers                                                                                        5 hrs

Use of Azotobacter paspali, A. vinlandii, A. chroococcum in crop yield

 

Rhizobium                                                                                                                 5 hrs

Use of Rhizobia spp.: R. leguminesarum,  R. japonicum, R. lupini, R. meliloti and Bradyrhizobia  spp.in plant yield

 

Mycorrhiza                                                                                                                5 hrs

Derexia and Ulnus spp., use of mycorrhizae  and Glomus spp. in plant

 

Agricultural Waste As Fertilizer                                                                              5 hrs

Agricultural wastes: Hay, Straw, Corn cobs, Saw dusts, Husks, Brans, Plant debris, Kitchen waste

                                           

Green Manuring As Fertilizers                                                                                15 hrs

Dhaincha: Sesbania spp. and other legumes used as green manuring, Study of use of Sesbania spp. and others for green manuring process, Use of algae and Azolla spp. as fertilizers, Use of piggery and hatchery and cow shed waste and night: Soil (after complete hygienic degradation) as fertilizers

 

References

  1. Rangaswami G and Bagyaraj  DJ (2004), Agricultural Microbiology, Prentice Hall Private Ltd
  2. Tisdale SL, Nelson WL and Beaton JD (1985), Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, Macmillan Technology and Engineering
  3. Steward FC (1963), Inorganic Nutrients of Plants, Elsevier Publications
  4. Atlas RM (1998), Microbial Ecology, Fundamental and Application, Fourth Edition, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc
  5. Tortora GJ, Funke BR and Case CL (2010), Microbiology: An Introduction, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc
  6. Subba Rao NS (2007), Soil Microbiology, Oxford Publications, New Delhi


MB 572 Agricultural Microbiology Practical I

 

Course Title: Practical course on (MB 563 + MB 569)                                  Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 572                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Practical (3 credits)                                                           Semester: II

 

Course Contents

1. Estimation of organic nitrogen in soil

2. Estimation of pesticide in soil

3. Estimation soil texture by sieve method

4. Isolation of nitrate reducers in soil

5. Isolation of fungal organism by buried slide technique

6. Isolation of antibiotic producing microbes from soil

7. Determination of alcohols in fermentative product

8. Fermentative production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger

9. Microbial production of protein by yeast

 

 


MB 573 Agricultural Microbiology Practical II

 

Course Title: Practical course on (MB 570 + MB 571)                                 Full Marks: 75

Course No. MB 573                                                                                        Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Practical (3 credits)                                                           Semester: II

 

Course Contents

1. Enumeration of cellulolytic organism in soil per gram of soil

2. Enumeration of proteolytic organism in soil per gram of soil

3. Enumeration of lipolytic organism in soil

4. Enumeration of hemicellulolytic organism in soil

5. Isolation and estimation of Azotobacter in soil

6. Isolation and estimation of Rhizobium in soil

7. Isolation and estimation of Mycorrhiza in soil

8. Isolation of amino acid producer from soil

9. Detection and enumeration of cellulolytic activity by soil microbes

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agriculture Microbiology

 

 

Semester III

 

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 619

Biological Control

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 620

Insect Microbial Pathology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 621

Agricultural Pest Management

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 622

Applied Soil Microbiology

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 623

Practical on (MB 619 + MB 620)

P

3

75

MB 624

Practical on (MB 621 + MB 622)

P

3

75

Total

18

450


MB 619 Biological Control

 

Course Title: Biological Control                                                                     Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 619                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the student will be able

  1. To have detail knowledge about the soil borne microbial and nematode diseases of plant
  2. To distinguish between pathogenic and deficiency disease in plant
  3. To understand  the  mechanism  of  genetic  trait transfer  in  soil borne  and  pathogenic  microbes

 

Course Contents

 

Microbial  Interaction                                                                                               2 hrs

Inter specific   relationship, Neutralism,  Commensalism, Protocoperation, Mutualism, Parasitism Ammensalism,  Predation,  Effects of  synchronism  and  cometabolism  in   microorganisms

 

Crop Pests                                                                                                                  4 hrs

Introduction and origin of herbivores insects and importance of their management, Classification and metamorphosis of crops pests and relation in biological control, Early history of pest control through pesticide, Problems with pesticides

 

Biological Control Of Pests                                                                                      10 hrs

Natural controls, Biological controls, Biorational controls, Biotechnological controls, Host plant resistance, Microbial controls. Rationale of biological control, Status and constraints of biological control works in Nepal, Major biocontrol agents of insect parasitoids, predators, pathogens and weed feeding arthropods, Approaches of biocontrol (inoculation, augmentation, inundation and conservation and encouragement), Desirable attributes of biocontrol agents, Biology of insect parasitoids within insect arthropods, Tritrophic interactions between crops, pests and biocontrol agents

 

Parasitoids And Insect Predators                                                                            4 hrs

Important parasitoids of different crop pests, General characteristics of parasitoids (Specific to the insect parasitoids only), Symptoms of parasitization, Relative effectiveness, Pesticide susceptibility, Important insect predators of different crop pests, Rearing techniques of major insect parasitoid (Trichogramma chilonis) and insect predator (Chrysoperla caranae), General characteristics of arthropod predators (Specific to the insect predators, major characteristics of arthropod predators (Specific to the predators only), Life cycle of insect parasitoids and predators, Relative effectiveness against major crop pests

 

Insect Pathogens                                                                                                        1 hr

Important groups of insect pathogens, Major characteristics of insect pathogens (specific to insect pathogens)

 

Microbial Insecticides (Fungi)                                                                                  4 hrs

Microbial insecticides, Insect pathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae) and (Beauveria bassiana) useful against crop pests , Target insects, Mode of infection, General life cycle, Host symptoms, Major fungal based microbial insecticides (exotic and indigenous) useful to  insect control

 

Microbial Insecticides (Bacteria)                                                                              4 hrs

Microbial insecticides, Insect pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis), Target insects, Mode of infection, life cycle, Host symptoms, Major microbial insecticides based on insect bacteria

 

Microbial Insecticides (Virus)                                                                                  4 hrs

Microbial insecticides, Insect pathogenic virus (Nuclear polyhedrosis virus and granulosis virus), Target insects, Mode of infection, Host symptoms, Life cycle, Major microbial insecticides based on insect virus

 

Microbial Insecticides (Nematodes And Protozoa)                                                4 hrs

Microbial insecticides, Insect pathogenic nematodes (Steinernamatids and Heterorhabditis) and protozoa, Target insects, Mode of infection, Host symptoms, Major microbial insecticides based on insect nematodes and protozoa, Role of EPNs, Problem associated with EPNs uses

 

Approaches In Biological Control                                                                           8 hrs

Environmental friendly microbial and botanical products available in Nepal, Steps for quality control and improving biological control agents, Storage techniques and method of application and release of biocontrol agents, Types/Principles of biological control, Techniques/Approaches in biological control, Inoculation, Augmentation, Inundation and conservation and encouragement approaches of biocontrol agents, Evaluation of natural enemies and pesticide selectivity: Introduction to pesticide selectivity, Pesticide side effects in natural enemies, Selective pesticide application, Some commercially available biocontrol agents and their places in Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

 

References

  1. Alcamo IE (2000), Fundamentals of Microbiology, Second Edition, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company
  2. Singh RS (1990), Plant Diseases, 9th Edition, IBH and Oxford Publishing Private Ltd
  3. Singh RS (2001), Plant Diseases Management Principles and Practice, Science Publisher India
  4. Mehrotra RS (2003), Plant Pathology, Tata McGraw Hill, Education
  5. Naik MK and  Devika Rani GS (2008), Advances in Soil-borne Plant Diseases, New India Publishing 

 

MB 620 Insect Microbial Pathology

 

Course Title: Insect Microbial Pathology                                                       Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 620                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the student will be able

  1. To understand management of plant pests and diseases using microbial pesticides
  2. To carry out the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with novel means of using microbial based biopesticides
  3. To have knowledge in biological control of insect pests and diseases

Course contents

 

Insect Microbial Pathology                                                                                       1 hr

Introduction, History of insect pathology, Relation of insect pathology with other sciences                                                                                  

Biological Control Based On Microbial Pathogens                                                4 hrs

Definition, Approaches of biological control, Microbial control, Introduction, Advantage and disadvantages of microbial agents, Significance of microbial agents in pest management, Interface between insect parasitoids, predators and insect pathogens (introduction, basic difference)                                                                                                                   

Biology Of Microbial Agents                                                                                    8 hrs

Significance of bacteria and fungi in Nepalese agriculture, Biology of microbial agents (virus, protozoa and nematodes) and significance in Nepalese agriculture                        

           

Insect Pathogenic Fungi                                                                                           10 hrs

Introduction, Taxonomy, Characteristics, Geographical distribution, Steps of developing microbial insecticides, Major host insects of insect pathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria spp: pathogenicity and epizotiology, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria, life cycle into different target pests, Insect resistance,  causes and remedial measures, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria, Effects to non-target organisms                                                                  

Techniques In Insect Pathology                                                                               20 hrs

Study on the fungi medium, Preparation technique; isolation, culturing and storage of the inoculums, Study on host insect of insect fungi: criterion of suitability of host insect, Handling of Galleria mellonella (a fungal host) larvae and their application into fungal study,   Rearing of suitable fungal host insect: White grubs, diet and suitable environment, Bioassay: Definition, set up and assessment techniques, Production aspects of insect fungi: rationale, ingredients, methodology for mass production, Production aspects of insect fungi: Rationale, methodology, storage, economics of production, Quality control: Rationale, methodology, Field evaluation: Field selection and study on the damage symptoms in crop plants, collection of infected grubs, study on the symptoms of host insects, Life tables, Introduction, definition, usefulness, methods and rationale, Monitoring of insect population: In situ and light traps, Mass production of insect fungi: Introduction, rationale and methods, Storage and handling of insect fungi from laboratory to field, Preparation of spore formulation and field test: Introduction, methods of evaluation in field condition, Sampling of host insects: Collection of specimens, observation and significance, Application: Methods, equipments vs manual and strategy, compatibility in timing, methodology, agrochemicals, collection of major parameters, Field evaluation of insect fungi: Variation in density and mycosis, Safety of insect pathogens, Crop loss assessment: Pre and post study effect and report preparation                         

 

Non-Target Organisms To EPSF                                                                            2 hrs

Introduction and their significances in agricultural production and pest suppression                                                                                                                       

References

  1. Gaugler R and Kaya H K Eds (1990), Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control, CRS Press, Boca Raton, Florida
  2. 2.      Goettel MS and Inglis DG (1997), Fungi: Hyphomycetes. In: Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology Lacey  LA and Kaya HK (eds.),  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL
  3. Ainsworth GC (1971), Ainsworth and Bisby’ Dictionary of the fungi, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew
  4. GC YD and Keller S (2002), Association of fungal pathogens with white grubs. In: Neupane  FP (ed.) (2003). Integrated pest management in Nepal: Proceedings of a National Seminar, Kathmandu, Nepal, 25-26 September 2002. Himalayan Resources Institute, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal
  5. Burges HD (Ed.) (1981), Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-80, Academic Press, London
  6. GC  YD (2010), Scrabs of Nepal and their microbial control.1st Edition, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing

8        Ferron P (1981), Pest control by the fungi Beauveria and Metarhizium. In: Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases, 1970-1980,  Burges HD (ed). Academic Press, London

9        Zimmermann G (1986), The Galleria baits method for detection of entomopathogenic fungi in soil. J. appl. Ent

10    Wraight SP, Jackson MA  and de Kock SL (2001), Production, stabilisation and formulation of fungal biocontrol agents. In: Fungi as biocontrol agents, progress, problems and potential,  Butt TM, Jackson CW and Magan N (eds.) CAB International, Wallingford

 

MB 621 Agricultural Pest Management

 

Course Title: Agricultural Pest Management                                                  Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 621                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the student will be able

  1. To identify the common insect pests which are agriculturally important
  2. To carry out the suitable control measures of the common insect pests
  3. To implement novel means of pest control using IPM approach
  4. To able to formulate appropriate pest control strategies in Nepal 

Course contents                                

                                                                       

Introduction Of Pest Management                                                                          3 hrs

Definition, Objectives, Historical highlights of pest control, Pest management strategies and tactics, Pattern of crop protection (Subsistence phase, Exploitation phase, Crisis phase, Disaster phase, Integrated control phase), Fate of pesticides in pest management, Classical examples of insecticides failures in the 1950s and recent phenomenon in Nepal

 

Survey And Sampling Of Insect-Pests                                                                    3 hrs

Definition, Common sampling techniques in insect pest management (In situ counts, Knockdown, Netting, Trapping, Extraction from the soil, Indirect techniques)

 

Monitoring And Forecasting Of Insect-Pests                                                         3 hrs

Definition, Economic decision level for pest population, Concepts of economic levels (Economic damage, Injury, Gain threshold, Damage threshold, Damage boundary, General equilibrium level, Economic injury level, Insect equivalents, Economic injury level, Pest residue, EIL concepts with the variety)

 

Pest Population And Crop Losses                                                                           3 hrs

Concepts on crop losses due to pests, Methods of estimating crop losses, Techniques of loss assessment

 

Insecticides And Biopesticides                                                                                  8 hrs

Definition, Classification of insecticides, Mode of action of insecticides, Hazards associated pesticides, Safe application techniques, Definition of biopesticides, Types of biopesticides, Mode of action of biopesticides, Usefulness of biopesticides in IPM

 

Host Plant Resistance                                                                                                2 hrs

Definition and concepts, Types of resistance, Mechanisms of resistance, Examples of plant resistance mechanisms based on host plant influences on insect populations, Basis of antibiosis in plants, Utility of tolerance in pest management, Evaluation of plant resistance, Transfer of plant resistance

 

Natural Enemies                                                                                                        5 hrs

Introduction and concepts on natural enemies, Agents of biocontrol agents (Natural enemies), Successful biocontrol examples, Advantages and disadvantages of biocontrol agents, Techniques or procedures of bio-control

 

Cultural Methods Of Pest Management                                                                 2 hrs

Concepts on cultural methods of pest management, Cultural methods of pest management, Significance of cultural methods

 

Insect-Pest Control                                                                                                    2 hrs

Concepts on interference methods, Methods of interference methods (Mechanical, Physical, Use of sex pheromones, Repellents, Attractants, Antifeedants, Chemosterilants, Growth inhibitors)

 

Pest Control Through Legislative Measures                                                          2 hrs

Definition and concepts, Quarantine check posts in Nepal, Role of legislation and politics in insect pest management, Future needs

 

Integrated Insect-Pest Management                                                                        12 hrs

Definition and concepts on integrated pest management (IPM), Principles of IPM, Tools of IPM, Status of IPM in Nepal, Need IPM in Nepal, IPM approach in Nepal, Development of IPM programme: An ideal sequence, Diagrammatic representation of IPM, IPM inputs, Pesticides that integrated in IPM approach, Integration of chemical pesticides in IPM, Development of IPM against insect: Pests of vegetables (Cruciferous, Solanaceous, Cucurbitaceous vegetables), Farmers’ field school (FFS): An IPM generation and dissemination tool, Procedures of field school conduction

 

References

 

1.      Shrivasta KP (1996), A textbook of applied entomology, Vol. II,  Kalyani Publishers

2.      Metcalf CL (1990), Fundamental of insect life,   Low Price Publications- New Delhi

3.      Atwal AS (1993), Agricultural Pests of India and South- East Asia (1993), Kalyani Publishers-New Delhi

4.      Ramakrishna Ayyar TV (1984), Handbook of Economic Entomology for South India, International Books and Periodicals Supply Service- New Delhi

5.      GC YD (2010), Nocturnal pests control with insect parasitic nematodes,1st Edition. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing

6.      Dhaliwal GS and Dilawari VK (1993), Advances in host plant resistance to insects, Kalyani   Publishers- New Delhi

7.      Hameed SF and Singh SP (1998), Hand book of pest management, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi

8.      Fenemore PG and Prakash A 1995), Applied entomology, Wiley Eastern Limited New Age   International, New Delhi

9.      Yazdani SS and  Agarwal ML (1997), Elements of Insect Ecology, Narosa Publishing

 

10.  GC YD (2011), IPM in vegetable insect pests in Nepal, PPD, Department of Agriculture, Government of Nepal

11.  van der Werf E (1985), Pest Management in Ecological Agriculture,  ETC Foundation

12.  GC YD, Pandey RR and Bhoosal DL (1997), Management of tomato fruit worm (H. armigera) during 1996/97, Working Paper 95 (50), Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Kaski, Nepal

 

 

MB 622 Applied Soil Microbiology

 

Course Title: Applied Soil Microbiology                                                        Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 622                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: III

 

Objectives

Upon completion of the course the student will be able

  1. To know and understand the role of major soil flora and fauna in crop productivity
  2. To apply the role of soil microorganisms in soil health
  3. To able to conserve and exploit soil micro-organisms

Course contents

 

Microorganisms In Miscellaneous Roles                                                                 20 hrs

Microbiology of air in relation to crop disease, Microbiology of water in relation crop disease, Insect microbiology: Beneficial insects in crop disease controls (Bugs, Praying Mantis), Microbiology of wood degradation and silage production, Microbiology of jute and hemp curing, Microbiology of deterioration of leather and other products

 

Mushroom Culture                                                                                                   10 hrs

Culture of medicinal and edible mushroom: Ganoderma  spp.,Safe  mushroom growing practice (free from toxic mushrooms)                

                                                              

Fermentation Technology                                                                                        10 hrs

Methanogens and microbial aspect of biogas production

 

Plant Pathology                                                                                                         5 hrs

Characteristics, symptoms, identification and  control of  some  important  plant  diseases: Bacterial, Viral, Fungal, Nematode diseases  of  selected  crop plants, fruits, legumes of Nepal

 

References

 

  1. Suman BC, Sharma V, Suman B and Sharma VP (2007), Mushroom Cultivation in India. Daya Publishing House


MB 623 Practical

 

Course Title: Practical Based on (MB 619+MB 620  )                                   Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 623                                                                                      Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of Course: Practical (3 credits)                                                           Semester: III

 

Course Contents

1.      Familiarisation and handling with general facilities required for biocontrol insectary (insectary location and building, temperature and humidity, insect rearing cages, general equipments, storage and sanitation, insectaria staff)

2.      Identification and mass multiplication technique of major biocontrol agents of predatory groups 

3.      Identification and mass multiplication of selected insect parasitoids of Lepidopteran pest insect (Trichogrammatids, Ichneumonids, Braconids etc)

4.      Isolation and identification of selected fungus pathogens to Coleopteran and Hymenopteran pests (Metarhizium and Beauveria)

5.      Mass production techniques of selected fungus pathogens of Coleopteran (Metarhizium and Beauveria

6.      Field assessment of selected fungus pathogens to Coleopteran (Metarhizium anisopliae)

7.      Identification, mass production and assessment of insect pathogenic nematodes against caterpillars and grubs

8.      Model to develop biocontrol programme based with insect pathogenic virus with

9.      Identification of commercially available biocontrol tools suitable to various insect pests

10.  Identification and application techniques to commercially available biopesticides and bioratoinal compounds against various insect pests

11.  On-farm survey and report writing about farmers knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on natural enemies of selected crop pests

12.  Project concept note preparation techniques in selected crop protection area

 

MB 624 Practical

 

Course Title: Practical Based on (MB 621 + MB 622)                                  Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 624                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5  

Nature of Course: Practical (3 credits)                                                           Semester: III

 

Course Contents

  1. Study of symptoms of cereal crops diseases - Fungal
  2. Study of symptoms of cereal crops diseases Bacterial
  3. Study of symptoms of cereal crops diseases – Nematodes
  4. Study of symptoms of cereal fruit diseases - Fungal
  5. Study of symptoms of cereal fruit diseases - Bacterial
  6. Study of symptoms of cereal fruit diseases Nematodes
  7. Study of symptoms of cereal vegetable diseases - Fungal
  8. Study of symptoms of cereal vegetable diseases - Bacterial
  9. Study of symptoms of cereal vegetable diseases - Nematodes
  10. Study of symptoms of cereal legumes diseases – Fungal
  11. Study of symptoms of cereal legumes diseases - Bacterial
  12. Study of symptoms of cereal legumes diseases - Nematodes
  13. Study of symptoms of cereal legumes diseases - Fungal
  14. Identification of stem, root, and leaf diseases of crops and vegetables

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agriculture Microbiology

 

 

Semester IV

Course code

Course title

Nature of course

Credits

Evaluation (40% internal assessment)

Compulsory courses

MB 651

 Research Methods and Biostatistics

T

3

75 (45+30)

MB 661

Journal club/Seminar

T

1

25

MB 662

Agriculture Based Internship

P

8

200

MB 663

Dissertation

P

4

100

Total

16

400

 

MB 651 Research Methods and Biostatistics

 

Course Title: Research Methods and Biostatistics                                        Full Marks: 75

Course No.: MB 651                                                                                       Pass Marks: 37.5

Nature of course: Theory (3 credits)                                                              Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of the course students will have knowledge on

  1. Research methods in microbiology
  2. Application of biostatistical methods in microbiological research

 

Course Contents

 

Research Methods

 

Research Methods                                                                                                     15 hrs

Introduction and objectives of research, Criteria of good research question, Research process, Priority areas, Objectives/ Hypothesis setting, Literature review, Critical appraisal, Meta analysis, Ethical issues in research: Salient point of the international guidelines, General ethical principles, Informed consent                                                                           

Scientific Writing                                                                                                      5 hrs

Paper writing, Proposal writing, Thesis/report writing (Seminar presentations)                                                                                                                    

Biostatistics

 

Sampling, Data Collection And Frequency Distribution                                       5 hrs

Sample and Sampling, Sampling design and Sample selection, Sample size and calculation, Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, Frequency distribution                                                                                                                                               

Data Analysis And Computer Application                                                             20 hrs

Quantitative data analysis (descriptive analysis, inferential analysis- chi square, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, 95% CI, Standard error, Odds ratio, p-value, Regression analysis), Data entry and data analysis using computer software (SPSS, STATA, SAS, Epi Info etc.)                                                                                                                                  

References

  1. Daniel WW (2004), Biostatistics: A foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, 8th Edition,Wiley
  2. Mahajan BK (2007), Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd, India

 

 

 

 

 

 

MB 663 Dissertation

 

Course Title: Dissertation                                                                              Full Marks: 100

Course No.: MB 663                                                                                      Pass Marks: 50

Nature of course: Laboratory based Research Project (4 credits)                 Semester: IV

 

Objectives

Upon the completion of dissertation the students will

  1. Have knowledge and skills to conduct original scientific research
  2. Have deep understanding of research methods  related to Agricultural Microbiology
  3. Be able to design an experiment, generate, analyse scientific data and conclude important findings
  4. Develop scientific writing and presentation skills

 

Course Description

 

Individual students will be assigned relevant research topics related to their field of study by concerned central department/campus/college. Students will perform required field work and laboratory experiments within this semester. The research will be supervised by faculty member(s) of microbiology of concerned central department/campus/college. Students should submit research proposal on assigned topic within first week of this semester and must be approved by the institutional review board. After completion of research work, the student should write the dissertation/thesis in standard format on the basis of data/findings generated during the research works. The student will submit required number of copies of their dissertation to concerned department/campus/college for evaluation. The submitted dissertation will be approved by head of the central department/campus chief/coordinator. On the recommendation of head of department/campus chief/coordinator, the Institute of Science and Technology will appoint a related expert as an external examiner from the panel of approved examiners to evaluate the submitted dissertation. On the recommendation of external examiner, viva-voce open defence will be organized for evaluation of dissertation by concerned department/campus/college. The final evaluation of dissertation will be made by a panel of external and internal examiners, head of the department and supervisor(s). Students will be encouraged to publish the dissertation findings in peer reviewed microbiology journals in the form of original research article.

    

 

 

 

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